6th Edition PMBOK® Guide–Process 12.1 Plan Procurement Management


Goods and services needed to do your project can be procured from other parts of the organization performing the project, in which case you will get them through Resource Management, which is covered by chapter 9 of the PMBOK® Guide, or you will get them from external sources, in which case you get will get them through Procurement Management, which is covered by chapter 12 of the PMBOK® Guide.

The first process in Procurement Management is process 12.1 Plan Procurement Management, which outlines how to do the other do processes, Conducting Procurement (process 12.2) and Controlling Procurement (process 12.3).

This post will cover the inputs to this process 12.1 Plan Procurement.

12.1.1 Plan Procurement Management:  Inputs

12.1.1.1  Project Charter

This contains the objectives of the project, a project description, summary milestones and the pre-approved financial resources for the project.    The objectives of the project and project description will help when describing the project to the potential sellers, and the summary milestones and pre-approved financial resources for the project will help in determining when to acquire the needed goods and services and how to acquire them.

12.1.1.2  Business Documents

  • Business case–this is usually created by the business analyst, and the main point in referring to this document is that the procurement strategy needs to be aligned to the strategy underlying the business case.
  • Benefits management plan–this describes when the specific project benefits are expected to be available, which will drive the dates of the procurement as well as the language of the contract.

12.1.1.3  Project Management Plan

The components of the project management plan that may serve as inputs to this process are:

  • Scope management plan–this will describe how the scope of work done by the contractors will be managed through the execution phase of the project.
  • Quality management plan–this will describe any applicable industry standards as well as any other codes that the project is required to follow.   These standards will be included in bidding documents such as the Request for Proposal (RFP), and may be used as part of the selection criteria for supplier prequalification.
  • Resource management plan–this has information on which resources will be purchased or leased, along with any assumptions or constraints that would influence the procurement.\
  • Scope baseline–the scope baseline actually consists of three separate documents:  the scope statement (which breaks the scope down from the requirements to the level of deliverables), the Work Breakdown Structure or WBS (which breaks the scope down further from the level of deliverables to the level of work packages), and the WBS dictionary (which gives additional information on the work packages).   The scope baseline is used to develop the
    • statement of work (SOW), a narrative description of products, services, or results to be delivered by the project, and the
    • terms of reference (TOR), which defines the purpose and structures of the project.

12.1.1.4   Project Documents

  • Milestone list–this list of major milestones for the project will show when the sellers are required to deliver their results
  • Project team assignments–this contains information on the skills and abilities of the project team and their availability to support the procurement activities.
  • Requirements documentation–this may include:
    • Technical requirements that the seller is required to satisfy
    • Requirements with contractual and legal implications, such as health and safety regulations, licenses, permits, intellectual property rights, etc.
  • Requirements traceability matrix–this lists the product requirements from their origin to the deliverables that satisfy them, as well as the “owners” of the requirements who can be consulted if there are questions concerning them.
  • Risk register–some risks may be transferred to the seller via a procurement agreement.
  • Stakeholder registre–provides details on the project participants and their interests in the project, which for the sake of procurement will include the contracting personnel (those specializing in procurement within the organization doing the project) as well as legal personnel (who manage the agreements with sellers).

12.1.1.5  Enterprise Environmental Factors

  • Marketplace conditions, as well as products, services and results available in the marketplace.
  • Past performance of reputation of potential sellers
  • Multi-tier supplier system of prequalified sellers based on prior experience
  • Typical terms and conditions for products, services and results for the specific industry
  • Unique local requirements, such as regulatory requirements for sellers (including local labor)
  • Contract management systems, including procedures for contract change control)
  • Legal advice regarding procurements
  • Financial accounting and contract payments system

12.1.1.6  Organization Process Assets

  • Preapproved seller lists–lists of sellers that have been properly vetted can streamline the steps needed for the seller selection process
  • Formal procurement policies, procedures, and guidelines–most organizations have formal procurement policies and buying organizations.   In fact, all aspects of procurement may be handled not by the project manager, but by a designated procurement manager for the organization.   If this is not the case, then the project team will have to supply both the resources and the expertise to perform such procurement activities.
  • Contract types–all legal contractual relationshps generally fall into two broad families:   either fixed-price contracts where the cost risk falls on the seller, or cost-reimbursable contracts where the cost risk falls on the buyer.   These contract types can be modified by incentive fees, economic price adjustments, and/or award fees in order to balance the risk between the parties.  There is a third type of contract called the time and materials contract, which is considered a hybrid type or contract, as the risk is shared by both the seller and the buyer.

The details regarding the variations on the fixed-price and cost-reimbursable contracts are on pp. 471 and 472 of the 6th Edition of the PMBOK® Guide.   The next post will cover the tools and techniques of the process 12.1 Plan Procurement Management.

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6th Edition PMBOK® Guide: Process 11.7 Monitor Risks: Outputs


Well, I’m back after a brief “vacation” from having moved and sold our old house.   Now that I’m not 100% unpacked yet, I’m installed enough into my new place to be able to start making blog posts again.

Today I’m concluding Chapter 11 on Risk Management with the final post on the outputs for the last risk management process, 11.7 Monitor Risks.   Now the process group is the “monitoring and controlling” process group, and even though the title of the process is “monitoring”, it always includes the “controlling” part, which means making changes if the monitoring part of the process shows that changes are needed.   These change requests are handled in the usual way, by being processed through the Perform Integrated Change Control process 4.6 (under the Integration Management knowledge area).

11.7.3  Monitor Risks:  Outputs

11.7.3.1  Work Performance Information

The risk register is reviewed and any changes to the previously agreed-upon risk responses for individual project risks are noted.   These changes are reviewed to indicate the effectiveness of the response planning (process 11.5 Plan Risk Responses) and response implementation processes (process 11.6 Implement Risk Responses).   Any changes in either the planning or the implementation should be made through a change request (see next paragraph).

11.7.3.2  Change Requests

The process of reviewing the risk register may result in changes to risk response planning and/or the implementation of those risk responses.   If these changes in turn require changes to the cost and/or schedule baseline (to account for the additional cost and/or time required to implemented those changed responses), then all of these changes need to be made through a change request.   These changes may be made with respect to individual project risks or to address the current level of overall project risk.

These requests are sent to the Perform Integrated Change Control process 4.6 in order to make the decision to accept or reject them.   If rejected, they go into the change log with the reasons for the rejection.   If they are accepted, then the changes are made to the project management plan (see next paragraph on Project Management Plan Updates).

11.7.3.3  Project Management Plan Updates

If the change requests mentioned in the last paragraph are accepted, the project management plan is updated accordingly, especially if the changed risk responses require changes to the cost and/or schedule baseline (to account for the additional cost and/or time required to implement the new or changed responses).   The changed risk responses themselves will be recorded in the risk register (see next paragraph on Project Document Updates)

11.7.3.4  Project Document Updates

  • Assumption log–in the process of monitoring risks, new assumptions may be uncovered, and existing assumptions may be revisited and changed.   The assumption log is updated with this new information.
  • Issue log–issues uncovered in the process of monitoring risks, usually related not to the contents of the risks themselves but in the handling of those risks, are recorded in the issue log.
  • Lessons learned register–if there are lessons learned as a result of the risk reviews done in this process, then these are recorded in the register so that they can be used on later phases of the project.
  • Risk register–the following are changes that might be made as a result of the Monitor Risks process:
    • Adding new risks that were not picked up during the original risk assessment but were noticed during the review
    • Updating outdated risks, so that if a risk triggered by a particular activity or task does not occur, then this risk can be considered outdated or obsolete.   This is important because the contingency reserve for the risk response associated with that risk may now be returned to the project budget, since it is now no longer needed for the outdated risk.
    • Updating risks that were realized to compare the amount of money actually spent with the amount put aside from the contingency reserve to pay for the response.   Besides reviewing the contingency reserve for those responses, the actual risk response needs to be reviewed to compare it with the expectation of how it should have occurred.   This may indicate that the effectiveness of the response planning and/or response implemtnation process needs to be changed.
    • Monitoring the risks on the “watch list” (those with low impact/low probability) to see if any of them need to be taken off the watch list, i.e., if their impact and/or probability has increased to the point where you need to add a risk response to account for them.
  • Risk report–another important part of the Monitor Risk process is letting the shareholders know what is going on with respect to risk.   This is done through the risk report, which is updated with the following based on the results of this process:
    • Current status of major individual project risks, including details of the top individual project risks, the agreed-upon risk responses and risk owners for those risks
    • Current level of overall project risks
    • Conclusions and recommendations for changes to the risk responses themselves
    • Conclusions from risk audits on the effectiveness of the risk management process

11.7.3.5  Organizational Process Assets Updates

The Monitor Risks process may result in changes to the following organizational process assets:

  • Templates for the risk management plan, risk register, and risk report
  • Risk breakdown structure (shows the source of risk on the project by category)

 

Wow, that chapter covers one of the most complicated aspects of project management, but one which will take you from being a good project manager to a great one if you can master it!

The next post will start on Project Procurement Management, which is the only “optional” knowledge area for project management, because you may be working on a project whose scope is limited enough that you can get the entire project done with resources from within the organization you belong to.   If, however, you need to acquire products, services, or results from outside the organization, then you need procurement management.   I will start with the inputs needed for the first process 12.1 Plan Procurement Management.

6th Edition PMBOK® Guide: Process 11.7 Monitor Risks: Tools and Techniques


In monitoring risks, you are not only monitoring the existing risks in the risk register, but you are seeing if there are new risks out there to be added to that register.   The tools and techniques listed under “Data Analysis” below are part of that process.   This is what might be considered the analogy of “quality control” when it comes to risk management.  The analogy of “quality assurance” comes with “Risk Audits”, another tool and technique listed below.

And since risk is such a multi-faceted phenomenon, it requires a large set of eyes and differing perspectives that come with them in order to get a handle on it.   This is where the final tool and technique comes in, that of “Meetings”, which should be a familiar tool and technique because it happens with a lot of processes that cover a lot of complex territory.

11.7.2  Monitor Risks:  Tools and Techniques

11.7.2.1  Data Analysis

  • Technical performance analysis–technical performance measures such as weight of the item being produced, transaction times, number of delivered defects, storage capacity, etc. (depending on the type of project) can be analyzed to see if there is deviation, which can indicate the possible existence of underlying risk.
  • Reserve analysis–reserve analysis compares the amount of contingency reserves remaining to the amount of risk remaining at any time in the project in order to determine if the remaining reserve is adequate.   So this is monitoring risk not directly, but indirectly through the contingency reserves which are used to pay for risk responses.   If risks do not occur, then the contingency reserves which were meant to pay for those risks can go back into the “pool” of reserves and strengthen this ratio.

11.7.2.2  Risk Audits

Risk audits consider the effectiveness of the risk management process.    Although the project manager is responsible for ensuring that risk audits are performed, PMI suggests that risk audit meetings be held separately from the risk review meetings in order to separate the “quality control” (focusing on the results) vs. the “quality assurance” (focusing on the process) aspects of risk management.   The format for the risk audit needs to be defined in the risk management plan before the audit is conducted.    The “quality control” part of the risk review is reviewing the effectiveness of the risk responses themselves, and this is done as part of the risk review meetings (see paragraph below).

11.7.2.3  Meetings

Risk reviews are scheduled meetings and, although PMI prefers to have risk review meetings separate from the periodic status meetings, they can be combined if this is specified in the risk management plan.   However, PMI does consider it imperative that risks be reviewed periodically in such meetings whether they are separate or combined with other meetings, and these meetings should discuss the following topics:

  • Documenting the effectiveness of risk responses in dealing with overall project risk and identified individual project risks
  • Identification of new individual project risks (including secondary risks that arise from agreed-upon risk responses)
  • Reassessment of current risks (are they are any risks on the watch list, for example, that have increased in either probability and/or impact such that they now merit a risk response)
  • Closing of risks that are outdated (and return of the contingency funds for the associated risk responses to the overall contingency reserve)
  • Issues that have arisen as the result of risks that have occurred
  • Identification of lessons to be learned for implementation in ongoing phases of hte current project

In the next post, I will cover the outputs for this process.

 

6th Edition PMBOK® Guide: Process 11.7 Monitor Risks: Inputs


The last process was in the executing process group, as we implemented the risk responses that we had planned in a previous process.   Now we switch to the monitoring and controlling process group.    Here the process is not just monitoring risk responses, but monitoring risks in general, and if necessary, making changes (the controlling part of the process) to the risk register, and to any other documents that are necessary.

This post will cover the inputs to the process.

11.7.1  Monitor Risks:  Inputs

11.7.1.1  Project Management Plan

The risk management plan is the component that is mainly used as an input.   This will give guidance on

  • how often risks should be reviewed
  • which policies and procedures for the organization should be followed when doing the review
  • the roles and responsibilities of the people doing the monitoring process
  • formats for reporting the results of the process (with risk reports)

11.7.1.2  Project Documents

Here are the project documents considered as inputs for the process.

  • Issue log–this will be used to see if there are any open issues that have been updated which may affect the risk register
  • Lessons learned register–lessons related to risk that were recorded earlier in the project will be reviewed to see if they apply to later phases in the project.
  • Risk register–the key inputs will include
    • identified individual project risks
    • risk owners
    • agreed-upon risk responses
    • specific risk response implementation actions
    • control actions for assessing the effectiveness of the risk respones plans
    • symptoms and warning signs of risk
    • residual and secondary risks
    • watch-list of low-priority risks
  • Risk report–assessment of the current overall project risk exposure as well as the agreed-upon risk response strategy, as well as the major individual risks with planned responses and risk owners.

11.7.1.3  Work Performance Data

This contains data related to risk such as:

  • risk responses that have been implemented
  • risks that have occurred
  • risks that are active
  • risks that have been closed out (because the risks associated with certain project activities did not occur)

11.7.1.4  Work Performance Reports

Information from performance measurements can be analyzed to provide project work performance information such as:

  • Variance analysis
  • Earned value data
  • Forecasting data

This information could be relevant when monitoring performance-related risks (such as missing an intermediate milestone, etc.).

The next process will be the tools and techniques associated with this process.

6th Edition PMBOK® Guide: Process 11.6 Implement Risk Responses: Outputs


This post covers the output of the process 11.6 Implement Risk Responses, which is part of the executing process group for risk management.

In this process, the risk responses that were planned in process 11.5 Plan Risk Responses   are actually implemented if the underlying risk is triggered.   If that risk response requires resources and/or time to implement, you must make a change to the cost and schedule baselines to reflect the additional time and/or cost incurred (see paragraph 11.6.3.1 below).

Of course, there are some risk responses which require additional time and/or cost incurred even if the risk does not occur, mainly because you are trying to reduce the probability of a risk occurring and/or the impact of that risk if it were to occur.   An example is:   if the data you have from a client is valuable and should not be lost, then you may want to pay the expense of having a mirror server which will take that data at the end of each day and copy it onto a server which is not in the same location.   When I was working for an insurance company that was in Los Angeles, this was done to prevent data loss in case of an earthquake.   It would not make sense to send the data to a server that is merely in another building across the street, so we sent it to a remote site that would not be effected if the local area had an earthquake.   Although this was an expense that we incurred even if an earthquake did not occur, it was considered a good idea to implement this risk response beforehand in order to mitigate the damage if one were to occur.

If there are any issues encountered in the implementation of the risk, or if there are any changes made to the risk response in the course of implementing it, you also need to update the appropriate project documents (see paragraph 11.6.3.2 below).

11.6.3  Implement Risk Responses:   Tools and Techniques

11.6.3.1  Change Requests

If a risk response is implemented because the underlying risk has been triggered and it is a contingent risk response (meaning that it is only implemented if the risk occurs), then a change request may need to be done to update the cost and schedule baselines of the project management plan in order to account for the additional cost and/or expense.   The scope management plan, particular the Work Breakdown Structure, may also have to be amended to account for the additional activities required in the risk response.

11.6.3.2  Project Document Updates

  • Issue log–if issues are uncovered in the implementation of risk responses, then these issues are recorded in the issue log.
  • Lessons learned register–if challenges are encountered when implementing risk responses, then information is added to the lessons learned register on how to avoid those challenges or on approaches that worked well when confronting them.
  • Project team assignments–the resources associated with the risk response are allocated, including the personnel required to implement them.
  • Risk register–if there are any changes to the risk responses made in the course of implementing them, these changes are recorded in the risk register used by the project team.
  • Risk report–if there are any changes to the risk responses made in the course of implementing them, these changes are recorded in the risk report that is send to stakeholders.

The next process group is monitoring and controlling, which in the case of risk management gives us the next and final process 11.7 Monitor Risks.   It not only is used for monitoring the implementation of agreed-upon risk responses plans, but for tracking identified risks (whether they occur or not), and periodically reviewing the risks on the project to see if there are any new risks that need to be added to the register.   Also, the effectiveness of the risk process is evaluated during the process.

The inputs to this process 11.7 Monitor Risks will be discussed in the next post.

 

6th Edition PMBOK® Guide: Process 11.6 Implement Risk Responses: Tools and Techniques


The risk responses should have been all planned at this point in the previous process 11.5 Plan Risk Responses.    This process is one of carrying them out in the most efficient and effective manner, and  to validate them once they are done.

As opposed to the planning process which requires some special tools and techniques unique to the process, implementing the risk response just requires what I call “generic” tools and techniques, ones that are used in quite a lot of different processes.

11.6.2  Implement Risk Responses:  Tools and Techniques

11.6.2.1  Expert Judgment

You should consider expertise from individuals who have specialized knowledge in how to carry out the risk responses in an efficient (doing things right) and effective (doing the right things) manner.   Hopefully you will have already chosen that person as the risk owner.

11.6.2.2  Interpersonal and Team Skills

Since you cannot as a project manager be everywhere on a project, that is why you assign risk owners to the various risks.   You need to use your influencing skill to encourage risk owners to take the necessary actions needed, and you may need to facilitate the risk process.   This is really no different than the influencing skill you need for people to get the underlying work done on the project for the process 4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work

11.6.2.3  Project Management Information System (PMIS)

This is the computer software program, like Microsoft Project, used to monitor the schedule, cost and resources on a project.   In the case of this process, it is to ensure that the risk response plans and their associated activities that have been agreed upon are integrated into the project alongside the other activities.

The next post covers the outputs of the process.

6th Edition PMBOK® Guide: Process 11.6 Implement Risk Responses: Inputs


Okay, for risk management we are now going from the first five processes, which were in the planning process group, and moving on to the executing process group.   In case of this risk management process, it means when the project has started, actually implementing the risk responses we planned in process 11.5 Plan Risk Responses.

Here are the inputs to this process:

11.6.1  Implement Risk Responses:  Inputs

11.6.1.1  Project Management Plan

The particular component of the project management plan that is an input is, of course, the risk management plan.   This should list the roles and responsibilities of project team members and other stakeholders who are involved in implementing risk responses.

The risk management plan also specifies the risk thresholds for the project, which define the acceptable target that the implementation of risk responses is supposed to achieve.

11.6.1.2  Project Documents

  • Lessons learned register–lessons learned during this process of implementing risk responses will be put into the register so that they can be applied in later phases of the project.
  • Risk register–the risk register will contain the agreed-upon risk response strategy for the overall project, as well as for major individual project risks.
  • Risk report–this contains an assessment of the current overall project risk exposure as well as the agreed-upon risk strategy, as well as for major individual project risks.

11.6.1.3  Organizational Process Assets

The lessons learned repository from similar completed projects can be used to indicate the effectiveness of particular risk responses.

The next post covers the tools and techniques of this process.   As opposed to the specialized tools and techniques of setting up the risk response plan in the previous process, this process is pretty straightforward and uses “generic” tools and techniques used in other processes as well:  expert judgment, interpersonal and team skills, and the Project Management Information System (PMIS) like Microsoft Project.