Passing the #PMP Exam: Inputs and Outputs—Procurements Knowledge Area


 

1. Introduction

In this next series of posts on memorizing the processes, we move on to the final step 6, which is memorizing the INPUTS & OUTPUTS associated with each of the 42 processes. In order to breakdown the memorization into more bite-size chunks, I am going to break down this topic into at least 9 posts, one for each knowledge area. (There may be some knowledge areas that require more than one post.)

This post covers chapter 12 of the PMBOK® Guide, which covers the Procurements Knowledge Area. This knowledge area contains 4 processes, one of which is in each process group except for the Initiating Process Group.

2. Review of processes in Procurements Knowledge Area

As a review, here is a chart which gives a summary of the processes themselves, plus the tools & techniques used as part of that process.

Process
Number & Name
Process Description Tools & Techniques
12.1 Plan Procurements Project purchasing decisions, identifying potential sellers. 1. Make-or-buy analysis

2. Expert judgment

3. Contract types

 

12.2 Conduct Procurements Selecting a seller through bids or proposals, awarding a contract. 1. Bidder conferences

2. Proposal evaluation techniques

3. Independent estimates

4. Expert judgment

5. Advertising

6. Internet search

7. Procurements negotiations

 

12.3 Administer Procurements Managing procurement relationships, monitoring contract performance, making changes as needed. 1. Contract change control system

2. Procurement performance reviews

3. Inspections and audits

4. Performance reporting

5. Payment systems

6. Claims administration

7. Records management system

 

12.4 Close Procurements Verification that deliverables are acceptable, formal closure of contract. 1. Procurement audits

2. Negotiated settlements

3. Records management system

3. Definition of inputs, outputs

The inputs for a given process are the documents or results of other processes that are used in order to do the process. The results of going through the process are the outputs. These outputs are then used as inputs for some other process.

4. Generic inputs

Before we start, there are two “generic” inputs that are used in many, many processes. The term “generic” inputs is not to be found in the PMBOK® guide; that’s just my term I made up in our study group to clue people in to the fact that they are included as an input in more processes than you could probably name off the top of your head.

A. ENVIRONMENTAL ENTERPRISE FACTORS (EEF)

This is the “company culture”, or factors that are external to the project but which influence the project’s success. These can include the company databases and, in particular, the project management software used by the company.

B. OPERATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS (OPA)

Written procedures, policies, and guidelines that are used by the company to guide all operations, including projects. Lessons learned would be an important part of OPA.

Think of the operational process assets as the “hard copy” (written procedures), and the environmental enterprise factors as the “soft copy” (software and the company culture or “unwritten rules” that govern how work is done).

NOTE: Tools & Techniques will be listed for the purpose of completeness and for reference, but their detailed description will be omitted, because it is contained in the blog posts specifically covering Tools & Techniques for that knowledge area.

12.1 PLAN PROCUREMENTS

To remember the inputs for this process, remember that the purpose of this process is to document the purchasing decisions for the project, specifying the requirements and identifying potential sellers.

INPUTS

12.1.1 Scope baseline

The scope baseline consists of the scope statement, the WBS, and the WBS dictionary. It is the output of the process 5.3 Create WBS.

12.1.2 Requirements documentation

This is an output of the process 5.1 Collect Requirements.

12.1.3 Teaming agreements

This is a contractual arrangement between two or more entities to form a partnership or joint venture for the duration of the project.

12.1.4 Risk register

This is an output of the process 11.2 Identify Risks.

12.1.5 Risk-related contract decisions

If the risk for a company for a certain activity is too high for its level of tolerance, then the company may transfer that risk through transferring that risk to another company by procurement contract, or through some sort of insurance arrangement.

12.1.6 Activity resource requirements

This is an output of the process 6.3 Estimate Activity Resources.

12.1.7 Project schedule

This is an output of the process 6.5 Develop Schedule.

12.1.8 Activity cost estimates

This is an output of the process 7.1 Estimate Costs.

12.1.9 Cost performance baseline

This is an output of the process 7.2 Determine Budget.

12.1.10 Enterprise environmental factors

The marketplace information on the past performance of suppliers.

12.1.11 Organizational process assets

Company procurement policies.

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES (for details, see Tools & Techniques Procurements post)

12.1.1 Make-or-buy analysis

12.1.2 Expert judgment

12.1.3 Contract types

OUTPUTS

12.1.1 Procurement management plan

This includes the following elements

Element

Description

1. Risk management issues Mitigation of risk through performance bonds, insurance contracts
2. Evaluation criteria, procurement metrics Metrics such as independent estimates to evaluate sellers
3. Scheduling and performance reporting Coordinating procurements with other work on project

12.1.2 Procurement statements of work

The Statement of Work or SOW defines only that portion of the project scope which is to be included within the related contract. It describes the item to be procured in sufficient detail to allow prospective sellers to determine if they are capable of providing it. The SOW is included in the procurement documents (see output 12.1.4).

12.1.3 Make-or-buy decisions

This documents the conclusion of the decision regarding which products, services, or results of the product will be acquired from outside the project organization as opposed to being performed internally by the project team. This includes not just issues of cost, but issues of risk as well.

12.1.4 Procurement documents

These are the documents used to solicit proposals from prospective sellers. These may include a Request for Information (RFI), Invitation for Bid (IFB), Request for Proposal (RFP), and/or Request for Quotation (RFQ).

12.1.5 Source selection criteria

These criteria include such things as the risk involved, the overall cost, the financial capacity of the seller, intellectual property issues, etc.

12.1.6 Change requests

The procurements process may result in change requests to the project.

12.2 CONDUCT PROCUREMENTS

To remember the inputs for this process, remember that the purpose of this process is to obtain seller responses to a bid or proposal, to select a seller, and to award a contract to that seller.

INPUTS

12.2.1 Project management plan

The procurement management plan is part of the project management plan. It is the output of the process 12.1 Plan Procurements.

12.2.2 Procurement documents

This is an output of the process 12.1 Plan Procurements.

12.2.3 Source selection criteria

This is an output of the process 12.1 Plan Procurements.

12.2.4 Qualified seller list

This is a list of sellers who have been qualified as sellers on previous projects with the company.

12.2.5 Seller proposals

The proposals by the sellers form the basic information used to select one or more successful bidders.

12.2.6 Project documents

The risk register, and risk-related contract decisions.

12.2.7 Make-or-buy decisions

This is an output of the process 12.1 Plan Procurements.

12.2.8 Teaming agreements

In a teaming agreement, the roles of the buyer and seller are decided by executive management.

12.2.9 Organizational process assets

Listings of prospective sellers and any information on past experience with them.

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES (see Tools & Techniques Procurements post for details)

12.2.1 Bidder conferences

12.2.2 Proposal evaluation techniques

12.2.3 Independent estimates

12.2.4 Expert judgment

12.2.5 Advertising

12.2.6 Internet search

12.2.7 Procurement negotiations

OUTPUTS

12.2.1 Selected sellers

The sellers are those selected based on the evaluation of their proposal or bid.

12.2.2 Procurement contract award

A procurement contract is awarded to each selected seller.

12.2.3 Resource calendars

This shows the availability of the resources that have been contracted for.

12.2.4 Change requests

The project management plan may be updated by change requests.

12.2.5 Project management plan updates

Cost, scope, schedule baselines, and the procurement management plan.

12.2.6 Project document updates

Requirements documentation and risk register.

12.3 ADMINISTER PROCUREMENTS

To remember the inputs for this process, remember that the purpose of this process is to manage the procurement relationships, monitor the performance of the sellers on the contract, and to make any changes or corrections as needed.

INPUTS

12.3.1 Procurement documents

This is an output of the process 12.1 Plan Procurements.

12.3.2 Project management plan

The procurement management plan is a component of the project management plan, and is an output of the process 12.1 Plan Procurements.

12.3.3 Contract

This is a contract awarded as an output of the process 12.2 Conduct Procurements.

12.3.4 Performance reports

These are reports from the seller which indicated which deliverables have been completed.

12.3.5 Approved change requests

These are any modifications to the contract with regards to the pricing and/or scope of the products to be provided.

12.3.6 Work performance information

This includes the extent to which the quality standards have been satisfied, what costs have been incurred in the fulfillment of the contract.

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES (see Tools & Techniques Procurements post for details)

12.3.1 Contract change control system

12.3.2 Procurement performance reviews

12.3.3 Inspections and audits

12.3.4 Performance reporting

12.3.5 Payment systems

12.3.6 Claims administration

12.3.7 Records management system

OUTPUTS

12.3.1 Procurement documentation

This includes the procurement contract, technical documentation, and other work performance information.

12.3.2 Organizational process assets updates

Updates to the seller performance evaluation documentation.

12.3.3 Change requests

If there are any constructive changes to the contract, these may result in a change request to the project.

12.3.4 Project management plan updates

The procurement management plan may be updated as a result of this process.

12.4 CLOSE PROCUREMENTS

To remember the inputs for this process, remember that the purpose of this process is to formally complete and close each project procurement.

INPUTS

12.4.1 Project management plan

The procurement management plan is a component of the project management plan, and is an output of the process 12.1 Plan Procurements.

12.4.2 Procurement documentation

This is an output of the process 12.1 Plan Procurements. All the documentation is required because it is filed and indexed as a result of this process.

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES

12.4.1 Procurement audits

12.4.2 Negotiated settlements

12.4.3 Records management system

OUTPUTS

12.5.1 Closed procurements

The buyer provides the seller with formal written notice that the deliverables have been received and approved, and that the contract has been completed.

12.5.2 Organizational process assets updates

Lessons learned, procurement file (for use in future projects).

This concludes the discussion of Inputs and Outputs for the 42 processes in the PMBOK® Guide.

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Passing the #PMP Exam: Inputs and Outputs—Risk Management Area


 

1. Introduction

In this next series of posts on memorizing the processes, we move on to the final step 6, which is memorizing the INPUTS & OUTPUTS associated with each of the 42 processes. In order to breakdown the memorization into more bite-size chunks, I am going to break down this topic into at least 9 posts, one for each knowledge area. (There may be some knowledge areas that require more than one post.)

This post covers chapter 11 of the PMBOK® Guide, which covers the Risk Management Knowledge Area. This knowledge area contains 6 processes, five of which is in the Planning Process group, and the last of which is in the Monitoring & Controlling Process Group.

 

2. Review of processes in Risk Management Knowledge Area

As a review, here is a chart which gives a summary of the processes themselves, plus the tools & techniques used as part of that process.

Process
Number & Name
Process Description Tools & Techniques
11.1 Plan Risk Management Defining how to conduct risk management activities for a project.

 

1. Planning meetings and analysis
11.2 Identify Risks Determining which risks may affect the project objectives and documenting their characteristics. 1. Documentation reviews

2. Information gathering interviews.

3. Checklist analysis

4. Assumptions analysis

5. Diagramming techniques

6. SWOT analysis

7. Expert judgment

 

11.3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis Prioritizing risks for further analysis by assessing likelihood & impact. 1. Risk probability and impact assessment

2. Probability and impact matrix

3. Risk data quality assessment

4. Risk categorization

5. Risk urgency assessment

6. Expert judgment

 

11.4 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis Numerically analyzing the effect of risks on project objectives. 1. Data gathering and representation techniques

2. Quantitative risk analysis and modeling techniques

3. Expert judgment

 

11.5 Plan Risk Responses Developing options and actions to enhance opportunities and reduce risk. 1. Strategies for negative risks or threats

2. Strategies for positive risks or opportunities

3. Contingent response strategies

4. Expert judgment

 

11.6 Monitor and Control Risks Tracking identified risks, implementing risk response plans if risks occur, and evaluating risk process effectiveness. 1. Risk reassessment

2. Risk audits

3. Variance and trend analysis

4. Technical performance measurement

5. Reserve analysis

6. Status meetings

3. Definition of inputs, outputs

The inputs for a given process are the documents or results of other processes that are used in order to do the process. The results of going through the process are the outputs. These outputs are then used as inputs for some other process.

4. Generic inputs

Before we start, there are two “generic” inputs that are used in many, many processes. The term “generic” inputs is not to be found in the PMBOK® guide; that’s just my term I made up in our study group to clue people in to the fact that they are included as an input in more processes than you could probably name off the top of your head.

A. ENVIRONMENTAL ENTERPRISE FACTORS (EEF)

This is the “company culture”, or factors that are external to the project but which influence the project’s success. These can include the company databases and, in particular, the project management software used by the company.

B. OPERATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS (OPA)

Written procedures, policies, and guidelines that are used by the company to guide all operations, including projects. Lessons learned would be an important part of OPA.

Think of the operational process assets as the “hard copy” (written procedures), and the environmental enterprise factors as the “soft copy” (software and the company culture or “unwritten rules” that govern how work is done).

NOTE: Tools & Techniques will be listed for the purpose of completeness and for reference, but their detailed description will be omitted, because it is contained in the blog posts specifically covering Tools & Techniques for that knowledge area.

11.1 PLAN RISK MANAGEMENT

To remember the inputs for this process, remember that the purpose of this process is to define how to conduct risk management activities for a project.

INPUTS

11.1.1 Project scope statement

The project scope statement is the output of the 5.2 Define Scope process.

11.1.2 Cost management plan

The cost management plan defines how risk budgets, contingencies, and management reserves will be reported and assessed.

11.1.3 Schedule management plan

The schedule management plan defines how schedule contingencies will be reported and assessed.

11.1.4 Communications management plan

The communications management plan defines how information on various risks will be shared.

11.1.5 Enterprise environmental factors

The attitudes and tolerances towards risk are part of a company culture.

11.1.6 Organizational process assets

Risk categories, standard templates for statements of risks

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES (for details, see Tools & Techniques Risk post)

11.1.1 Planning meetings and analysis

OUTPUTS

11.1.1 Risk management plan

This includes the following elements (RM stands for risk management in the following table):

Component Explanation (answers what question?)
1. Methodology How will RM be performed?
2. Roles and responsibilities Who will handle and lead RM activities?
3. Budgeting What funds are needed for RM?
4. Timing How often will RM be performed
5. Risk categories How are risks categorized according to their source (technical, external, organizational, or PM-related)?
6. Risk probability & impact definitions What does /low/moderate/high risk mean in terms of impacts on project?
7. Probability & impact matrix What are probabilities of risk occurring and what it its impact on project?
8. Stakeholders’ tolerances What are tolerances for risk among various stakeholders?
9. Reporting formats How are the results of RM processes to be communicated to stakeholders?
10. Tracking How will risk events be tracked for the purpose of the project and for inclusion in lessons learned for future projects?

11.2 IDENTIFY RISKS

To remember the inputs for this process, remember that the purpose of this process is to determine which risks may affect the project.

INPUTS

11.2.1 Risk management plan

This is the output for the process 11.1 Plan Risk Management.

11.2.2 Activity cost estimates

This is the output for the process 7.1 Estimate Costs.

11.2.3 Activity duration estimates

This is the output for the process 6.4 Estimate Activity Durations.

11.2.4 Scope baseline

This is the output for the process 5.3 Create WBS.

11.2.5 Stakeholder register

This is the output of the process 10.1 Identify Stakeholder.

11.2.6 Cost management plan

This is part of the project management plan, which is the output of the process 4.2 Project Management Plan.

11.2.7 Schedule management plan

This is part of the project management plan, which is the output of the process 4.2 Project Management Plan.

11.2.8 Quality management plan

This is part of the project management plan, which is the output of the process 4.2 Project Management Plan.

11.2.9 Project documents

Assumptions log, network diagrams, and other information valuable in identifying risks.

11.2.10 Enterprise environmental factors

Published information (industry studies, academic studies, etc.) useful for identifying risks.

11.2.11 Organizational process assets

Risk statement templates, and lessons learned from previous projects.

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES (see Tools & Techniques Risk post for details)

11.2.1 Documentation reviews

11.2.2 Information gathering techniques

11.2.3 Checklist analysis

11.2.4 Assumptions analysis

11.2.5 Diagramming techniques

11.2.6 SWOT analysis

11.2.7 Expert judgment

OUTPUTS

11.2.1 Risk register

The risk register identifies each risk, indicates what impact it would have on the project if the risk were to occur, and identifies potential responses to that risk.

11.3 PERFORM QUALITATIVE RISK ANALYSIS

To remember the inputs for this process, remember that the purpose of this process is to take the risks that have been identified in the previous process and to prioritize them by estimating their probability of occurrence and impact.

INPUTS

11.3.1 Risk register

This is the output from process 11.2 Identify Risks.

11.3.2 Risk management plan

This is the output from process 11.1 Plan Risk Management.

11.3.3 Project scope statement

This is the output from the process 5.2 Scope Statement.

11.3.4 Organizational process assets

Information about risks from previous projects.

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES (see Tools & Techniques Risk post for details)

11.3.1 Risk probability and impact assessment

11.3.2 Probability and impact matrix

11.3.3 Risk data quality assessment

11.3.4 Risk categorization

11.3.5 Risk urgency assessment

11.3.6 Expert judgment

OUTPUTS

11.3.1 Risk register updates

The risk register, which is an output of the 11.2 Identify Risk process, is updated with the following categories of information: risk categories, risk priority, risk causes, risk responses, watchlists (low-priority risks), and list of risks needing more analysis.

11.4 PERFORM QUANTITATIVE RISK ANALYSIS

To remember the inputs for this process, remember that the purpose of this process is to take the risk events that have been identified in the 11.2 Identify Risks process, and prioritized in the 11.3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis process, and to analyze what the effect of these will be on the project objectives.

INPUTS

11.4.1 Risk register

This is the output from the 11.2 Identify Risks process.

11.4.2 Risk management plan

This is the output from the 11.1 Plan Risk Management process.

11.4.3 Cost management plan

This is part of the project management plan, which is the output of the process 4.2 Project Management Plan.

11.4.4 Schedule management plan

This is part of the project management plan, which is the output of the process 4.2 Project Management Plan.

11.4.5 Organizational process assets

Information about risks from previous projects.

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES

11.4.1 Data gathering and representation techniques

11.4.2 Quantitative risk analysis and modeling techniques

11.4.3 Expert judgment

OUTPUTS

11.4.1 Risk register updates

The risk register is an output of the 11.2 Identify Risks process, and is updated as part of the 11.3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis process. It is further updated as part of this process by additional of the following categories of information: probabilistic analysis of the project, probability of achieving cost and time objectives, prioritized list of quantified risks, and trends in quantitative risk analysis results.

11.5 PLAN RISK RESPONSES

To remember the inputs for this process, remember that the purpose of this process is to enhance opportunities and reduce threats to project objectives.

INPUTS

11.5.1 Risk register

This is an output of the process 11.1 Identify Risks.

11.5.2 Risk management plan
This is an output of the process 11.2 Plan Risk Management.

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES

11.5.1 Strategies for negative risks or threats

11.5.2 Strategies for positive risks or opportunities

11.5.3 Contingent response strategies

11.5.4 Expert judgment

OUTPUTS

11.5.1 Risk register updates

To the risk register that is an output of the processes 11.2 Identify Risks, 11.3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis, and 11.4 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis, the list of risks according to priority are updated with strategies for risk responses for when they occur.

11.5.2 Risk-related contract decisions

There are risks related to the fulfillment of contracts. Contracts are one form of mitigating or transferring risk.

11.5.3 Project management plan updates

Any of the components of the project management plan may be updated as a result of the development of risk responses.

11.5.4 Project document updates

Assumptions logs.

11.6 MONITOR AND CONTROL RISKS

To remember the inputs for this process, remember that the purpose of this process is the process of implementing risk responses plans, monitoring risks, identifying new risks, and evaluating the effectiveness of the overall risk management process.

INPUTS

11.6.1 Risk register

This is the output of the previous four processes 11.2 through 11.6 (updated throughout each process).

11.6.2 Project management plan

This is the output of the 4.2 Develop Project Management Plan.

11.6.3 Work performance information

This is the output of the process 4.3 Direct and Manage Project Execution

11.6.4 Performance reports

This is the output of the process 10.5 Report Performance.

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES

11.6.1 Risk reassessment

11.6.2 Risk audits

11.6.3 Variance and trend analysis

11.6.4 Technical performance measurement

11.6.5 Reserve analysis

11.6.6 Status meetings

OUTPUTS

11.6.1 Risk register updates

To the risk register that is an output of the previous 4 processes, details of risk audits, periodic risk reviews, and risk reassessments are added.

11.6.2 Organizational process assets updates

Lessons learned for future projects.

11.6.3 Change requests

If risks occur which require contingency plans or workarounds as part of a risk response, these may require a change request.

11.6.4 Project management plan updates

Risk management plans may need to be updated.

11.6.5 Project document updates

Assumptions logs updates may need to be updated for the purpose of future projects.

The next post will cover the inputs and outputs of the Procurements Knowledge Area.

Passing the #PMP Exam: Inputs and Outputs—Communications Knowledge Area


1. Introduction

In this next series of posts on memorizing the processes, we move on to the final step 6, which is memorizing the INPUTS & OUTPUTS associated with each of the 42 processes. In order to breakdown the memorization into more bite-size chunks, I am going to break down this topic into at least 9 posts, one for each knowledge area. (There may be some knowledge areas that require more than one post.)

This post covers chapter 10 of the PMBOK® Guide, which covers the Communications Knowledge Area. This knowledge area contains 5 processes, one of which is in the Initiating Process group, one of which is in the Planning Process group, two of which are in the Executing Process Group, and the last of which is in the Monitoring & Controlling Process Group.

2. Review of processes in Communication Knowledge Area

As a review, here is a chart which gives a summary of the processes themselves, plus the tools & techniques used as part of that process.

 

Process
Number & Name
Process Description Tools & Techniques
10.1  Identify Stakeholders Identifying project stakeholders, that is, people impacted by the project, and documenting their interests, involvement, and impact on the project. 1.  Stakeholder analysis

2.  Expert judgment

10.2  Plan Communications Determining the needs of project stakeholders for information and defining a communication approach. 1.  Communication requirements analysis

2.  Communication technology

3.  Communication models

4.  Communication methods

10.3  Distribute Information Making relevant information available to project stakeholders. 1.  Communication methods

2.  Information distribution tools

10.4  Manage Stakeholder Expectations Communicating with project stakeholders to meet their needs and address issues as they occur. 1.  Communication methods

2.  Interpersonal skills

3.  Management skills

10.5  Report Performance Collecting and distributing performance information (status reports, progress measurements, forecasts) to project stakeholders. 1.  Variance analysis

2.  Forecasting methods

3.  Communication methods

4.  Reporting systems.

 

3.  Definition of inputs, outputs

The inputs for a given process are the documents or results of other processes that are used in order to do the process. The results of going through the process are the outputs. These outputs are then used as inputs for some other process.

4. Generic inputs

Before we start, there are two “generic” inputs that are used in many, many processes. The term “generic” inputs is not to be found in the PMBOK® guide; that’s just my term I made up in our study group to clue people in to the fact that they are included as an input in more processes than you could probably name off the top of your head.

A. ENVIRONMENTAL ENTERPRISE FACTORS (EEF)

This is the “company culture”, or factors that are external to the project but which influence the project’s success. These can include the company databases and, in particular, the project management software used by the company.

B. OPERATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS (OPA)

Written procedures, policies, and guidelines that are used by the company to guide all operations, including projects. Lessons learned would be an important part of OPA.

Think of the operational process assets as the “hard copy” (written procedures), and the environmental enterprise factors as the “soft copy” (software and the company culture or “unwritten rules” that govern how work is done).

NOTE: Tools & Techniques will be listed for the purpose of completeness and for reference, but their detailed description will be omitted, because it is contained in the blog posts specifically covering Tools & Techniques for that knowledge area.

10.1 IDENTIFY STAKEHOLDERS

To remember the inputs for this process, remember that the purpose of this process is to identify all people and/or organizations that are impacted by the project.

INPUTS

10.1.1 Project charter

This is the output of 4.1 Develop Project Charter process.

10.1.2 Procurement documents

This is the output of the 12.1 Plan Procurements process. It is used to identify those stakeholders that are parties to any contract with a supplier.

10.1.3 Enterprise environmental factors

Company culture, government/industry standards

10.1.4 Organizational process assets

Templates of stakeholder register from previous projects.

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES (for details, see Tools & Techniques Communications post)

10.1.1 Stakeholder analysis

10.1.2 Expert judgment

OUTPUTS

10.1.1 Stakeholder register

This is the output of the process, which gives the following information about stakeholders.

Register information

Description

1. Identification information Name, organization, role in the project, contact info
2. Assessment information Requirements, expectations, influence on project
3. Stakeholder classification Internal/external, supporter/neutral/resistor

10.1.2 Stakeholder management strategy

This includes identification of key stakeholders, level of participation in the project for each stakeholder, and potential strategies for gaining their support.

10.2 PLAN COMMUNICATIONS

This process details the information needs for the project stakeholders and defines a communication approach to keep them informed.

INPUTS

10.2.1 Stakeholder register

This is an output of the process 10.1 Identify Stakeholders.

10.2.2 Stakeholder management strategy

This is an output of the process 10.1 Identify Stakeholders.

10.2.3 Enterprise environmental factors

The communication process must be done according to the company culture.

10.2.4 Operational process assets

Communications issues from previous projects.

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES (see Tools & Techniques Communications post for details)

10.2.1 Communication requirements analysis

10.2.2 Communication technology

10.2.3 Communication models

10.2.4 Communication methods

OUTPUTS

10.2.1 Communications management plan

This gives the stakeholder communication requirements, as well as details regarding the frequency, means, and format of the communications. It includes guidelines and templates for project status meetings, project team meetings, e-mail, and online or electronic meetings.

10.2.2 Project document updates

The stakeholder register and stakeholder management strategy may need to be updated.

10.3 DISTRIBUTE INFORMATION

The purpose of this process is to make relevant information available to project stakeholders.

INPUTS

10.3.1 Project management plan

The communications management plan is a part of the project management plan, which is an output of the 4.2 Develop Project Management Plan process.

10.3.2 Performance reports

These are outputs of the 10.5 Report Performance process. These reports are to distributed in the project meetings based on this process.

10.3.3 Organizational process assets

Lessons learned, communications procedures from previous projects.

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES (see Tools & Techniques Communications post for details)

10.3.1 Communication methods

10.3.2 Information distribution tools

OUTPUTS

10.3.1 Organizational process assets updates

Project reports, project records, lessons learned may need to be updated.

10.4 MANAGE STAKEHOLDER EXPECTATIONS

This process is for communicating and working with stakeholders to meet their needs and address any conflict issues as they occur.

INPUTS

10.4.1 Stakeholder Register

This is an output of the process 10.1 Identify Stakeholders.

10.4.2 Stakeholder management strategy

This is an output of the process 10.1 Identify Stakeholders.

10.4.3 Project management plan

The communications management plan is a part of the project management plan, which is an output of the 4.2 Develop Project Management Plan process.

10.4.4 Issue log

This documents and monitors the resolution of issues. This is used to maintain a constructive working relationship with the various stakeholders.

10.4.5 Change log

This documents changes that occur during a project. These must be communicated to the appropriate stakeholders.

10.4.6 Organizational process assets

Change control procedures, lessons learned from previous projects, issue or conflict resolution procedures.

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES

10.4.1 Communication methods

10.4.2 Interpersonal skills

10.4.3 Management skills

OUTPUTS

10.4.1 Organizational process assets updates

Lessons learned for future projects. Causes of issues and reasoning behind their resolution.

10.4.2 Change requests

Stakeholder expectations may result in a change request to the product or project.

10.4.3 Project management plan updates

The communications management plan may need to be updated.

10.4.4 Project document updates

The stakeholder register and issue log may need to be updated.

10.5 REPORT PERFORMANCE

The purpose of this process is to collect and distribute information on the performance of the project, including progress reports and progress measurements.

INPUTS
10.5.1 Project management plan

Information on project baselines.

10.5.2 Work performance information

Status of deliverables, schedule progress (EV), and actual costs incurred (AC).

10.5.3 Work performance measurements

Earned value (EV) vs. planned value (EV), earned value (EV) vs. actual costs (AC)

10.5.4 Budget forecasts

Estimate to completion (EAC) vs. Budget to completion (BAC)

10.5.5 Organizational process assets

Performance reporting templates.

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES

10.5.1 Variance analysis

10.5.2 Forecasting methods

10.5.3 Communication methods

10.5.4 Reporting systems

OUTPUTS

10.5.1 Performance reports

These contain the performance on the project and comparison to the performance measurement baseline.

10.5.2 Organizational process assets updates

Lessons learned documentation, reasoning behind any corrective action chosen to respond to issues.

10.5.3 Change requests

If the project performance is off the performance baseline, changes requests may be generated. These become inputs to the process 4.5 Perform Integrated Change Control.

The next post will cover the inputs and outputs of the Risk Management Knowledge Area.

Passing the #PMP Exam: Inputs and Outputs—Human Knowledge Area



 1. Introduction

In this next series of posts on memorizing the processes, we move on to the final step 6, which is memorizing the INPUTS & OUTPUTS associated with each of the 42 processes. In order to breakdown the memorization into more bite-size chunks, I am going to break down this topic into at least 9 posts, one for each knowledge area. (There may be some knowledge areas that require more than one post.)

This post covers chapter 9 of the PMBOK® Guide, which covers the Cost Knowledge Area. This knowledge area contains 4 processes, one of which is in the Planning Process group, and three of which are in the Executing Process Group.

2. Review of processes in Quality Knowledge Area

As a review, here is a chart which gives a summary of the processes themselves, plus the tools & techniques used as part of that process.

Process
Number & Name
Process Description Tools & Techniques
9.1 Develop Human Resource Plan Identifying project roles and responsibilities, create staffing management plan. 1. Organizational charts and position descriptions

2. Networking

3. Organizational Theory

 

9.2 Acquire Project Team Confirming human resource availability and obtaining team. 1. Pre-assignment

2. Negotiation

3. Acquisition

4. Virtual teams

 

9.3 Develop Project Team Improving team interaction and team environment. 1. Interpersonal skills

2. Training

3. Team-building skills

4. Ground rules

5. Co-location

6. Recognition and rewards

 

9.4 Manage Project Team Optimizing team performance by tracking member performance, resolving conflicts, providing feedback. 1. Observation and conversation

2. Project performance appraisals

3. Conflict management

4. Issue log

5. Interpersonal skills

3. Definition of inputs, outputs

The inputs for a given process are the documents or results of other processes that are used in order to do the process. The results of going through the process are the outputs. These outputs are then used as inputs for some other process.

4. Generic inputs

Before we start, there are two “generic” inputs that are used in many, many processes. The term “generic” inputs is not to be found in the PMBOK® guide; that’s just my term I made up in our study group to clue people in to the fact that they are included as an input in more processes than you could probably name off the top of your head.

A. ENVIRONMENTAL ENTERPRISE FACTORS (EEF)

This is the “company culture”, or factors that are external to the project but which influence the project’s success. These can include the company databases and, in particular, the project management software used by the company.

B. OPERATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS (OPA)

Written procedures, policies, and guidelines that are used by the company to guide all operations, including projects. Lessons learned would be an important part of OPA.

Think of the operational process assets as the “hard copy” (written procedures), and the environmental enterprise factors as the “soft copy” (software and the company culture or “unwritten rules” that govern how work is done).

NOTE: Tools & Techniques will be listed for the purpose of completeness and for reference, but their detailed description will be omitted, because it is contained in the blog posts specifically covering Tools & Techniques for that knowledge area.

9.1 DEVELOP HUMAN RESOURCE PLAN

To remember the inputs for this process, remember that the purpose of this 9.1 Develop HR Plan is to identify the project roles and responsibilities, as well as the required skills to do the project, and to create a staffing management plan.

INPUTS

9.1.1 Activity resource requirements

This is an output of the process 6.3 Estimate Activity Resources. This contains the preliminary requirements for the people needed on the project. This is elaborated as part of this process.

9.1.2 Enterprise environmental factors

HR policies

9.1.3 Organizational process assets

Organizational charts, historical information on previous projects

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES (for details, see Tools & Techniques HR post)

9.1.1 Organizational charts and position descriptions

9.1.2 Networking

9.1.3 Organizational theory

OUTPUTS

9.1.1 Human resource plan

The human resource plan is the output of the 9.1 Develop HR plan process. It contains the following elements

  • Roles and responsibilities for the project
  • Project organizational charts
  • Staffing management plan (resource calendars, training needs, criteria for recognition and rewards)

9.2 ACQUIRE PROJECT TEAM

This 9.2 Develop Project Team process confirms the availability of human resources and obtains the team necessary to complete project assignments.

INPUTS

9.2.1 Project management plan

The HR plan that is part of the project management plan is an output of the 4.2 Develop Project Management Plan, and is an input to this process.

9.2.2 Enterprise environmental factors

Information on availability of human resources.

9.2.3 Organizational process assets

HR policies of the organization.

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES (see Tools & Techniques HR post for details)

9.2.1 Pre-assignment

9.2.2 Negotiation

9.2.3 Acquisition

9.2.4 Virtual teams

OUTPUTS

9.2.1 Project staff assignments

The process takes the appropriate people and assigns them to the various activities for the duration of the project.

9.2.2 Resource calendars

This lists the time periods when each project team member can work at the project. This is used as an essential input to the 6.5 Develop Schedule process.

9.2.3 Project management plan updates

The HR plan is updated as part of this process.

9.3 DEVELOP PROJECT TEAM

The purpose of this process is to improve the team interaction of the various members of the project in order to enhance their performance as a team on the project.

INPUTS

9.3.1 Project staff assignments

This is an output of the previous process 9.2 Acquire Project Team.

9.3.2 Project management plan

The HR plan that is part of the project management plan is an output of the 4.2 Develop Project Management Plan, and is an input to this process. In particular, the strategies for training team members and the criteria for recognition and rewards of team members are useful for this process.

9.3.3 Resource calendars

This is the output from the previous 9.2 Acquire Project Team process.

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES (see Tools & Techniques QUALITY post for details)

9.3.1 Interpersonal skills

9.3.2 Training

9.3.3 Team-building activities

9.3.4 Co-location

9.3.5 Recognition and rewards

OUTPUTS

9.3.1 Team performance assessments

This is an evaluation of the effectives of the team, which in turn indicates how effective the team-building activities were that were a part of this process.

9.3.2 Enterprise environmental factors updates

The training records for the team members will be updated as part of this process.

9.4 MANAGE PROJECT TEAM

This process tracks the team members’ performance in order to optimize project performance.

INPUTS

9.4.1 Project staff assessments

This is an output of the 9.2 Acquire Project Team process. This has the list of project team members.

9.4.2 Project management plan

In particular, the human resource plan (which is part of the project management plan) is used in this process, in particular the staffing management plan.

9.4.3 Team performance assessments

This is the output of the previous process 9.3 Develop Project Team which is an evaluation of the team’s performance.

9.4.4 Performance reports

The performance reports are for the progress of the project as compared to the project forecasts.

9.4.5 Organizational process assets

Criteria for recognition and rewards as incentives for good individual and team performance.

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES

9.4.1 Observation and conversation

9.4.2 Project performance appraisals

9.4.3 Conflict management

9.4.4 Issue log

9.4.5 Interpersonal skills

OUTPUTS

9.4.1 Enterprise environmental factors updates

Performance appraisals and personnel skill updates.

9.4.2 Organization process assets updates

Organizational standard processes with regards to conflict management and other issues related to interpersonal relations.

9.4.3 Change requests

If there are unforeseen events that occur on the project, staffing changes may be necessary. These changes could include outsourcing some of the work that was previously done in-house, or moving people to different projects within the organization.

9.4.4 Project management plan updates

The staffing management plan may need to be updated.

The next post will cover the inputs and outputs of the Communications Knowledge Area.

Passing the #PMP Exam: Inputs and Outputs—Quality Knowledge Area



 1. Introduction

In this next series of posts on memorizing the processes, we move on to the final step 6, which is memorizing the INPUTS & OUTPUTS associated with each of the 42 processes. In order to breakdown the memorization into more bite-size chunks, I am going to break down this topic into at least 9 posts, one for each knowledge area. (There may be some knowledge areas that require more than one post.)

 This post covers chapter 8 of the PMBOK® Guide, which covers the Cost Knowledge Area. This knowledge area contains 3 processes, one of which is in the Planning Process group, one of which is in the Executing Process Group, and the last of which is in the Monitoring & Controlling Process Group.

2. Review of processes in Quality Knowledge Area

As a review, here is a chart which gives a summary of the processes themselves, plus the tools & techniques used as part of that process.

Process
Number & Name
Process Description Tools & Techniques
8.1 Plan Quality Identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and product; documenting how project will demonstrate compliance. 1. Cost-benefit analysis

2. Cost of quality

3. Control charts

4. Benchmarking

5. Design of experiments

6. Statistical sampling

7. Flowcharting

8. Proprietary quality management methodologies

9. Additional quality planning tools

 

8.1 Perform Quality Assurance Auditing quality requirements and results from quality control measurements to ensure appropriate quality standards are used. 1. Plan Quality and Perform Quality Control tools and techniques

2. Quality audits

3. Process analysis

 

8.3 Perform Quality Control Monitors and records results of quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes. 1. Cause and effect diagrams

2. Control charts

3. Flowcharting

4. Histogram

5. Pareto chart

6. Run chart

7. Scatter diagram

8. Statistical sampling

9. Inspection

10. Approved change requests review

3. Definition of inputs, outputs

The inputs for a given process are the documents or results of other processes that are used in order to do the process. The results of going through the process are the outputs. These outputs are then used as inputs for some other process.

4. Generic inputs

Before we start, there are two “generic” inputs that are used in many, many processes. The term “generic” inputs is not to be found in the PMBOK® guide; that’s just my term I made up in our study group to clue people in to the fact that they are included as an input in more processes than you could probably name off the top of your head.

A. ENVIRONMENTAL ENTERPRISE FACTORS (EEF)

This is the “company culture”, or factors that are external to the project but which influence the project’s success. These can include the company databases and, in particular, the project management software used by the company.

B. OPERATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS (OPA)

Written procedures, policies, and guidelines that are used by the company to guide all operations, including projects. Lessons learned would be an important part of OPA.

Think of the operational process assets as the “hard copy” (written procedures), and the environmental enterprise factors as the “soft copy” (software and the company culture or “unwritten rules” that govern how work is done).

NOTE: Tools & Techniques will be listed for the purpose of completeness and for reference, but their detailed description will be omitted, because it is contained in the blog posts specifically covering Tools & Techniques for that knowledge area.

8.1 PLAN QUALITY

To remember the inputs for this process, remember that the purpose of this 8.1 Plan Quality process is to identify the quality requirements and standards to be used for the project and to document how that quality will be implemented.

INPUTS

8.1.1 Scope baseline

Remember the scope baseline consists of three components derived as outputs of the 5.3 Create WBS process: the scope statement (project description, major project deliverables, and acceptance criteria), the WBS (identifies detailed deliverables), and the WBS dictionary (gives technical information about WBS work packages).

8.1.2 Stakeholder register

Output of 10.1 Identify Stakeholders process. Lists those stakeholders that are concerned with quality.

8.1.3 Cost performance baseline

Output of 7.2 Determine Budget process. Shows basis for measuring cost performance.

8.1.4 Schedule baseline

Output of 6.5 Develop Schedule process. Shows basis for measuring schedule performance.

8.1.5 Risk register

Output of 11.2 Identify Risks process. Shows threats and opportunities that may impact quality.

8.1.6 Enterprise environmental factors

Governmental regulations and internal work conditions that may effect quality.

8.1.7 Organizational process assets

Organizational quality policies, company quality policy (intended direction with regard to quality), Lessons learned from previous projects.

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES (for details, see Tools & Techniques QUALITY post)

8.1.1 Cost-benefit analysis

8.1.2 Cost of quality

8.1.3 Control charts

8.1.4 Benchmarking

8.1.5 Design of experiments

8.1.6 Statistical sampling

8.1.7 Flowcharting

8.1.8 Proprietary quality management methodologies

8.1.9 Additional quality planning tools

OUTPUTS

8.1.1 Quality management plan

A component of the overall project management plan which shows how the quality policy mentioned as an input (8.1.7 OPA) is to be impomented.

8.1.2 Quality metrics

An attribute of the project or quality and how the quality control process will measure it. This should be something that be measured with a certain tolerance. Examples: on-time performance, budget performance defect frequency, failure rate.

8.1.3 Quality checklists

Component-specific checklist used to verify that required steps have been performed. This is done to ensure consistency in frequently performed tasks.

8.1.4 Process improvement plan

  • Process boundaries (their purpose, start and end, inputs/outputs, data required, stakeholders involved)
  • Process configuration (graphical depiction of processes used to facilitate analysis)
  • Process metrics (with control limits)
  • Targets for performance improvement

8.1.5 Project document updates

Updates may be made to the stakeholder register for those stakeholders involved with quality, and the responsibility assignment matrix for personnel related to or actually performing tasks related to quality.

8.2 PERFORM QUALITY ASSURANCE

It will be easier to remember Inputs & Outputs for this process 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance if you remember the purpose of the process, which is to audit quality requirements and results from quality control measurement to ensure the organizational is following the proper quality standards.

INPUTS

8.2.1 Project management plan

The quality management plan is a component of the project management plan, and is an output of the 8.1 Plan Quality process. Another component of the project management plan that is used in this process is the process improvement plan.

8.2.2 Quality metrics

An output of the 8.1 Plan Quality process. These are the attributes that are used to measure quality.

8.2.3 Work performance information

The status of the schedule, costs incurred, and the status of deliverables are all inputs to this process.

8.2.4 Quality control measurements

These are the outputs of the following 8.3 Perform Quality Control process.

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES (see Tools & Techniques QUALITY post for details)

8.2.1 Plan Quality and Perform Quality Control tools & techniques

8.2.2 Quality audits

8.2.3 Process analysis

OUTPUTS

8.2.1 Organizational process assets updates

Quality standards may be updated.

8.2.2 Change requests

If one of the results of the audits in this process is that quality processes need to be improved, change requests may be created and used as an input to the 4.5 Perform Integrated Change Control process. It may be that an audit of quality processes show that there are defects in the deliverables, in which case change requests may be made for corrective action or to repair the deliverables. Change requests could also be made to prevent defects in the deliverables.

8.2.3 Project management plan updates

The quality management plan, schedule and/or cost management plan may need to be updated as a result of the quality audits.

8.2.4 Project document updates

Quality audit reports, and documentation of the processes may need to be updated.

8.3 PERFORM QUALITY CONTROL

It may be easier to remember the inputs and outputs of this 8.3 Perform Quality Control process if you remember the purpose of the process, which is to record the results of quality control activities and to recommend any changes if necessary. Quality control activities detect if there are quality problems, and if so, they identify the causes of those problems.

INPUTS

8.3.1 Project management plan

The quality management plan is an output of 8.1 Plan Quality. It contains a description of how quality control will be performed within the project.

.

8.3.2 Quality metrics

An output of 8.1 Plan Quality. These are the attributes that are used to measure quality.

8.3.3. Quality checklists

Another output of 8.1 Plan Quality. These are component-specific checklists used to verify that required steps of processes have been performed. This is done to ensure consistency in frequently performed tasks.

8.3.4 Work performance measurements

These metrics include PV (planned value) vs. EV (earned value), and EV (earned value) vs. AC (actual costs). These evaluate the actual progress on the project as compared to the planned progress.

8.3.5 Approved change requests

These are the outputs of the 4.5 Perform Integrated Change Control process. These could be defect repairs, revised work processes, and/or revised schedules. The implementation of these approved changes needs to be verified.

8.3.6 Deliverables

The output of 4.3 Direct and Manage Project Execution.

8.3.7 Organizational process assets

Quality standards will influence this process, as well as any changes to work processes (mentioned in output 8.3.5 Approved change requests).

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES (see Tools & Techniques QUALITY post for details)

8.3.1. Cause and effect diagrams

8.3.2. Control charts

8.3.3. Flowcharting

8.3.4. Histogram

8.3.5. Pareto chart

8.3.6. Run chart

8.3.7. Scatter diagram

8.3.8. Statistical sampling

8.3.9. Inspection

8.3.10. Approved change requests review

OUTPUTS

8.3.1 Quality control measurements

These are the results of the quality control measurements.

8.3.2 Validated changes

Any items which are repaired as a result of this process will be inspected, and accepted or rejected as being acceptable.

8.3.3 Validated deliverables

These are deliverables whose quality has been validated as for correctness as to the quality control standards. These validated deliverables are then sent to the customer for their acceptance as part of the 5.4 Verify Scope process.

8.3.4 Organizational process assets updates

Quality checklists may be updated, as well as the lessons learned if there are any corrective actions taken or other quality control-related improvements.

8.3.5 Change request

If there are corrective actions, preventive actions or defect repairs required, then change requests are initiated and become an input to the 4.5 Perform Integrated Change Control process.

8.3.6 Project management plan updates

The quality management plan and/or process improvement plan may need to be updated.

8.3.7 Project document updates

Quality standards may need to be updated as a result of this process.

The next post will cover the inputs and outputs of the Human Resources Knowledge Area.

Passing the #PMP Exam: Inputs and Outputs—Cost Knowledge Area



1. Introduction

In this next series of posts on memorizing the processes, we move on to the final step 6, which is memorizing the INPUTS & OUTPUTS associated with each of the 42 processes. In order to breakdown the memorization into more bite-size chunks, I am going to break down this topic into at least 9 posts, one for each knowledge area. (There may be some knowledge areas that require more than one post.)

 This post covers chapter 7 of the PMBOK® Guide, which covers the Cost Knowledge Area. This knowledge area contains 3 processes, two of which are in the Planning Process group, and the last of which is in the Monitoring & Controlling Process Group.

2. Review of processes in Cost Knowledge Area

As a review, here is a chart which gives a summary of the processes themselves, plus the tools & techniques used as part of that process.

Process
Number & Name
Process Description Tools & Techniques
7.1 Estimate Costs Developing an approximation of the monetary resources needed to complete project activities. 1. Expert judgment

2. Analogous estimating

3. Parametric estimating

4. Bottom-up estimating

5. Three-point estimating

6. Reserve analysis

7. Cost of quality

8. Project management estimating software

9. Vendor bid analysis

 

7.2 Determine Budget Sums up the estimated costs and add reserves to establish an authorized cost baseline. 1. Cost aggregation

2. Reserve analysis

3. Expert judgment

4. Historical relationships

5. Funding limit reconciliation

 

7.3 Control Costs Monitoring the status of the project to update project budget and manage changes to the cost baseline. 1. Earned value management

2. Forecasting

3. To-complete performance index (TCPI)

4. Performance reviews

5. Variance analysis

6. Project management software

3. Definition of inputs, outputs

The inputs for a given process are the documents or results of other processes that are used in order to do the process. The results of going through the process are the outputs. These outputs are then used as inputs for some other process.

4. Generic inputs

Before we start, there are two “generic” inputs that are used in many, many processes. The term “generic” inputs is not to be found in the PMBOK® guide; that’s just my term I made up in our study group to clue people in to the fact that they are included as an input in more processes than you could probably name off the top of your head.

A. ENVIRONMENTAL ENTERPRISE FACTORS (EEF)

This is the “company culture”, or factors that are external to the project but which influence the project’s success. These can include the company databases and, in particular, the project management software used by the company.

B. OPERATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS (OPA)

Written procedures, policies, and guidelines that are used by the company to guide all operations, including projects. Lessons learned would be an important part of OPA.

Think of the operational process assets as the “hard copy” (written procedures), and the environmental enterprise factors as the “soft copy” (software and the company culture or “unwritten rules” that govern how work is done).

NOTE: Tools & Techniques will be listed for the purpose of completeness and for reference, but their detailed description will be omitted, because it is contained in the blog posts specifically covering Tools & Techniques for that knowledge area.

7.1 ESTIMATE COSTS

INPUTS

7.1.1 Scope baseline

The scope baseline, which consists of the scope statement, the WBS, and the WBS dictionary, is an output of the 5.3 Create WBS process.

7.1.2 Project schedule

The project schedule is an output of the 6.5 Develop Schedule process.

7.1.3 Human resource plan

The Human resource plan is an output of the 9.1 Develop Human Resource Plan process.

7.1.4 Risk register

The risk register is an output of the 11.2 Identify Risks process.

7.1.5 Enterprise environmental factors

Commercial information about standard costs for material, equipment, and human resources.

7.1.6 Organizational process assets

Cost estimating templates.

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES

7.1.1. Expert judgment

7.1.2 Analogous estimating

7.1.3 Parametric estimating

7.1.4 Bottom-up estimating

7.1.5 Three-point estimates

7.1.6 Reserve analysis

7.1.7 Cost of quality

7.1.8 Project management estimating software

7.1.9 Vendor bid analysis

OUTPUTS

7.1.1 Activity cost estimates

Probable costs required for resources required to complete project work.

7.1.2 Basis of estimates

Documentation of assumptions made, known constraints, range of estimates, and confidence level of estimate.

7.1.3 Project document updates

Risk register may be updated.

7.2 DETERMINE BUDGET

INPUTS

7.2.1 Activity cost estimates

Output of previous process 7.1 Estimate Costs.

7.2.2 Basis of estimates

Output of previous process 7.1 Estimate Costs.

7.2.3 Scope baseline

The scope baseline, which consists of the scope statement, the WBS, and the WBS dictionary, is an output of the 5.3 Create WBS process.

7.2.4 Project schedule

The project schedule is an output of the 6.5 Develop Schedule process. Includes planned start and finish dates for the project’s activities, milestones, work packages, planning packages, and control accounts.

7.2.5 Resource calendars

Shows which resources are assigned to the project during each time period of the project.

7.2.6 Contracts

Information from the contracts relating to purchased products, services, or results.

7.2.7 Organizational process assets

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES

7.2.1 Cost aggregation

7.2.2 Reserve analysis

7.2.3 Expert judgment

7.2.4 Historical relationships

7.2.5 Funding limit reconciliation

OUTPUTS

7.2.1 Cost performance baseline

Time-phased budget from the beginning of the project to the budget at completion or BAC.

7.2.2 Project funding requirements

Funding requirements for each period (quarter or year) are derived from the cost baseline.

7.2.3 Project document updates

Updates may be made to risk register, cost estimates, and the project schedule.

7.3 CONTROL COSTS

INPUTS

7.3.1 Project management plan

It includes the cost performance baseline, and the cost management plan (how to manage and control project costs).

7.3.2 Project funding requirements

These are the total funding requirements and the periodic funding requirements derived from the cost baseline.

7.3.3 Work performance information

Information about project progress towards completion of the deliverables, and the costs that have been incurred for completing the project work up to this point.

7.3.4 Organizational process assets

Cost control policies and tools.

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES

7.3.1 Earned value management

7.3.2 Forecasting

7.3.3 To-complete performance index

7.3.4 Performance reviews

7.3.5 Variance analysis

7.3.6 Project management software

OUTPUTS

7.3.1 Work performance measurements

CV = EV – AC, CPI = EV/ AC, SV = EV – PV, SPI = EV/PV are calculated for the work packages and control accounts in the WBS.

7.3.2 Budget forecasts

EAC or the estimate to completion is calculated using one of the formulas

EAC = AC + (BAC – EV)

EAC = AC + (BAC – EV)/CPI

EAC = AC + (BAC – EV)/CPI*SPI

Which one is used depends on whether the cause for the current variance is a one-time delay, a continuing delay that effects the costs, or a continuing delay that effects both the costs and the schedule.

7.3.3 Organizational process assets updates

Causes of variances, corrective actions taken, or lessons learned related to project cost control.

7.3.4 Change requests

Change requests are updated if an analysis of the project performance results in a change request to the cost performance baseline.

7.3.5 Project management plan updates

Specifically, updates to the cost performance baseline and the cost management plan.

7.3.6 Project document updates

Cost updates are updated.

The next post will cover the inputs and outputs of the Quality Knowledge Area.

Passing the #PMP Exam: Inputs and Outputs—Time Knowledge Area (Part 2)



 1. Introduction

In this next series of posts on memorizing the processes, we move on to the final step 6, which is memorizing the INPUTS & OUTPUTS associated with each of the 42 processes. In order to breakdown the memorization into more bite-size chunks, I am going to break down this topic into at least 9 posts, one for each knowledge area. (There may be some knowledge areas that require more than one post.)

This post covers chapter 6 of the PMBOK® Guide, which covers the Time Knowledge Area. This knowledge area contains 6 processes, five of which are in the Planning Process group, and the last of which is in the Monitoring & Controlling Process Group.

 (I am splitting the discussion of the Inputs & Outputs into two different posts; this post will cover Processes 6.4 through 6.6.)

2. Review of processes in Time Knowledge Area

As a review, here is a chart which gives a summary of the processes themselves, plus the tools & techniques used as part of that process.

Process
Number & Name
Process Description Tools & Techniques
6.1 Define Activities Identifying actions to be performed to produce product deliverables. 1. Decomposition

2. Rolling wave planning

3. Templates

4. Expert judgment

 

6.2 Sequence Activities Identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities. 1. Precedence diagramming method (PDM)

2. Dependencey determination

3. Applying leads and lags

4. Schedule network templates

 

6.3 Estimate Activity Resources Estimating type and quantities of resources (human and material) required to perform each activity. 1. Expert judgment

2. Alternatives analysis

3. Published estimating data

4. Bottom-up estimating

5. Project management software

 

6.4 Estimate Activity Durations Approximating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources. 1. Expert judgment

2. Analogous estimating

3. Parametric estimating

4. Three-point estimates

5. Reserve analysis

 

6.5 Develop Schedule Analyzing activity sequences, durations, resources requirements, and schedule constraints to create product schedule. 1. Schedule network analysis

2. Critical path method

3. Critical chain method

4. Resource leveling

5. What-if scenario analysis

6. Applying leads and lags

7. Schedule compression

8. Scheduling tool

 

6.6 Control Schedule Monitoring the status of the project to update project progress and manage changes to schedule baseline. 1. Performance reviews

2. Variance analysis

3. Project management software

4. Resource leveling

5. What-if scenario analysis

6. Adjusting leads and lags

7. Schedule compression

8. Scheduling tool

3. Definition of inputs, outputs

The inputs for a given process are the documents or results of other processes that are used in order to do the process. The results of going through the process are the outputs. These outputs are then used as inputs for some other process.

4. Generic inputs

Before we start, there are two “generic” inputs that are used in many, many processes. The term “generic” inputs is not to be found in the PMBOK® guide; that’s just my term I made up in our study group to clue people in to the fact that they are included as an input in more processes than you could probably name off the top of your head.

A. ENVIRONMENTAL ENTERPRISE FACTORS (EEF)

This is the “company culture”, or factors that are external to the project but which influence the project’s success. These can include the company databases and, in particular, the project management software used by the company.

B. OPERATIONAL PROCESS ASSETS (OPA)

Written procedures, policies, and guidelines that are used by the company to guide all operations, including projects. Lessons learned would be an important part of OPA.

Think of the operational process assets as the “hard copy” (written procedures), and the environmental enterprise factors as the “soft copy” (software and the company culture or “unwritten rules” that govern how work is done).

NOTE: Tools & Techniques will be listed for the purpose of completeness and for reference, but their detailed description will be omitted, because it is contained in the blog posts specifically covering Tools & Techniques for that knowledge area.

6.4. ESTIMATE ACTIVITY DURATIONS

INPUTS

6.4.1 Activity List

This is the output of process 6.1 Define Activities.

6.4.2 Activity Attributes

This is the output of process 6.1 Define Activities.

6.4.3 Activity Resource Requirements

This is the output of process 6.3 Estimate Activity Resources. The duration of most activities depends on the resources assigned to that activity and the availability of those resource (which is given by the next input 6.4.4 Resource calendars). An activity may be assigned originally on an eight-hour-a-day basis, but if the person assigned to that activity is only available for four hours a day, it will take twice as many days to complete the activity.

6.4.4 Resource calendars

These indicates the availability of resources to be used on the activities.

6.4.5 Project scope statement

This gives assumptions to be considered when estimating activity durations.

6.4.6 Enterprise environmental factors

Reference data regarding estimating resources.

6.4.7 Organizational process assets

Historical information on resource estimation.

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES
6.4.1 Expert judgment

6.4.2 Analogous estimating

6.4.3 Parametric estimating

6.4.4 Three-point estimates

6.4.5 Reserve analysis

OUTPUTS

6.4.1 Activity duration estimates

This gives the likely number of work periods required to complete an activity. They are given with a range of possible results.

6.4.2 Project document updates

Activity attributes, and assumptions (part of scope statement) may be updated.

6.5 DEVELOP SCHEDULE

INPUTS

6.5.1 Activity List

This is the output of process 6.1 Define Activities.

6.5.2 Activity Attributes

This is the output of process 6.1 Define Activities.

6.5.3 Project schedule network diagrams

This is an output of process 6.2 Sequence Activities

6.5.4 Activity Resource Requirements

This is the output of process 6.3 Estimate Activity Resources. The duration of most activities depends on the resources assigned to that activity and the availability of those resource (which is given by the next input 6.4.4 Resource calendars). An activity may be assigned originally on an eight-hour-a-day basis, but if the person assigned to that activity is only available for four hours a day, it will take twice as many days to complete the activity.

6.5.5 Resource calendars

These indicate the availability of resources to be used on the activities.

6.5.6 Activity duration estimates

This is the output of process 6.4 Estimate Activity Duration.

6.5.7 Project scope statement

This gives assumptions and constraints that may impact the project schedule.

6.5.8 Enterprise environmental factors

Scheduling tools.

6.5.9 Organizational process assets

Scheduling methodology, project calendar.

TOOL & TECHNIQUES

6.5.1 Schedule network analysis

6.5.2 Critical path method

6.5.3 Critical chain method

6.5.4 Resource leveling

6.5.5 What-if scenario analysis

6.5.6 Applying leads and lags

6.5.7 Schedule compression

6.5.8 Scheduling tool

OUTPUTS

6.5.1 Project schedule

This can be in the form of a bar chart, project schedule network diagram, and/or a milestone chart.

6.5.2 Schedule baseline

This is the version of the schedule developed from the schedule network analysis that has been accepted and approved by the project management team.

6.5.3 Schedule data

Contains the start date, finish date, milestone date, and all resource requirements for each time period.

6.5.4 Project document updates

Activity resource requirements, activity attributes, calendar, and risk register may all be updated.

6.6 CONTROL SCHEDULE

INPUTS

6.6.1 Project measurement plan

The project management plan contains the schedule management plan and the schedule baseline.

6.6.2 Project schedule

This is the output from the 6.5 Develop Schedule process.

6.6.3 Work performance information

This tells about the project progress, and it used to compare to which activities have been planned to be finished by that point in the project.

6.6.4 Organizational process assets

Scheduling tools.

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES

6.6.1 Performance reviews

6.6.2 Variance analysis

6.6.3 Project management software

6.6.4 Resource leveling

6.6.5 What-if scenario analysis

6.6.6 Adjusting leads and lags

6.6.7 Schedule compression

6.6.8 Scheduling tool

OUTPUTS

6.6.1 Work performance measurements

This is a measurement of the calculation of the schedule variance (SV)

SV = EV – PV

or as an alternative the schedule performance index (SPI)

SPI = EV/PV

6.6.2 Organizational process assets updates

If there are variances, the causes of them and any corrective actions chosen to correct them are included.

6.6.3 Change requests

Rather than corrective action to bring the project back to the project baseline, it is possible that a change request may be done to change the project baseline components, such as the schedule baseline.

6.6.4 Project management plan updates

The schedule baseline, cost baseline, or the schedule management plan may be updated.

6.6.5 Project document updates

Other documents that may be updated are the project schedule itself.

The next post will cover the inputs and outputs of the Cost Knowledge Area.