5th Edition PMBOK® Guide–Step 6: Memorizing Inputs & Outputs (Quality Management Part 1)


1. Introduction

In this next series of posts on memorizing the processes, we move on to the final step 6, which is memorizing the INPUTS & OUTPUTS associated with each of the 47 processes.   In order to breakdown the memorization into more bite-size chunks, I am breaking down the processes in the 10 knowledge areas into 2 or 3 posts each.

This post covers chapter 8 of the PMBOK® Guide, which covers the Quality Knowledge Area. This knowledge area contains 3 processes, one of which is in the Planning Process Group, one of which is in the Executing Process Group and the last of which is in the Monitoring & Controlling Process Group.

(I am splitting the discussion of the Inputs & Outputs into three different posts, each one covering one of the processes.   This post will cover Processes 8.1 Plan Quality Management.)

 

2.   Review of process 8.1 Plan Quality Management with ITTOs

As a reminder, Plan Quality Management is the process of putting together the Quality Management Plan, which gives guidelines as to all of the other quality processes that will be done in the course of the project.

Process Name Tools & Techniques Inputs Outputs
8.1 Plan Quality Management 1. Cost-benefit analysis

2. Cost of quality

3. Seven basic quality tools

4. Benchmarking

5. Design of experiments

6. Statistical sampling

7. Additional quality planning tools

8. Meetings

1. Project management plan

2. Stakeholder register

3. Risk register

4. Requirements documentation

5. EEFs

6. OPAs

1. Quality management plan

2. Process improvement plan

3. Quality metrics

4. Quality checklists

5. Project documents updates

3.  Outputs of process 8.1

a. Quality management plan

Describes how the organization’s quality policies will be implemented on the project, and how the project management team plans to meet the quality requirements set for the project.

b. Process improvement plan

This is a subsidiary management plan that is included in the project management plan.    It contains the following elements:

  • Process boundaries (describes purpose of the process, the start and the end of the process, its inputs and outputs, the process owner, and the stakeholders of the process)
  • Process configuration (graphical depiction of processes)
  • Process metrics (control limits, allows analysis of process efficiency)
  • Targets for improved performance (guides process improvement activities)

c. Quality metrics

Describes a project or product attribute and how the quality control process will measure it, usually in terms of a measurement and a tolerance (the allowable variations to the metric).    Typical quality metrics include:   defect frequency, failure rate, on-time performance.

d. Quality checklists

Used to verify that a set of required steps has been performed.   Quality checklists should incorporate the acceptance criteria included in the scope baseline.

e. Project documents updates

These include

  • Stakeholder register
  • Responsibility assignment matrix (from Human Resources Management)
  • WBS and WBS Dictionary

4.  Inputs of process 8.1

a. Project management plan

One of the inputs to the process of 8.1 Plan Quality Management are the performance baselines for the project, namely the

  • Scope baseline (consisting of the project scope statement, the WBS, and the WBS dictionary)–product scope often contains of technical issues and other concerns that can affect quality planning; contains acceptance criteria whose definition may affect quality costs
  • Schedule baseline–documents accepted schedule performance measures, including start and finish dates
  • Cost baseline–documents the accepted time interval used to measure cost performance

b. Stakeholder register

Helps identify those stakeholders with a particular interest in or impact on quality.

c. Risk register

Contains information on threats and opportunities that may impact quality requirements.

d. Requirements documentation

Captures the requirements that the project shall meet pertaining to stakeholder expectations, both project (including product) and quality requirements.

e.  EEFs

The EEFs used as inputs to this process include:

  • Governmental agency regulations
  • Rules, standards, guidelines specific to application area
  • Working or operating conditions of the projects or its deliverables that may affect product quality
  • Cultural perceptions that may influence expectations about quality

f.   OPAs

The OPAs used as inputs to this process include:

  • Organizational quality policies, procedures, guidelines
  • Historical databases and lessons learned from previous projects

5th Edition PMBOK® Guide–Step 6: Memorizing Inputs & Outputs (Cost Management Part 2)


1. Introduction

In this next series of posts on memorizing the processes, we move on to the final step 6, which is memorizing the INPUTS & OUTPUTS associated with each of the 47 processes.   In order to breakdown the memorization into more bite-size chunks, I am breaking down the processes in the 10 knowledge areas into 2 or 3 posts each.

This post covers chapter 7 of the PMBOK® Guide, which covers the Cost Knowledge Area. This knowledge area contains 4 processes, three of which are in the Planning Process group, and the last of which is in the Monitoring & Controlling Process Group.

(I am splitting the discussion of the Inputs & Outputs into two different posts; this post will cover Processes 7.3 Determine Budget and 7.4 Control Costs.)

2.  Review of processes 7.3 and 7.4 ITTOs (Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs)

There are a total of four processes in the Cost Management Knowledge Area.   Because of the large number of inputs and outputs, I am splitting my discussion of the inputs and outputs into two different posts, each one of which will cover two of the processes.    In that way, I can describe the inputs and outputs for these processes in a little bit of detail without the post becoming too long.

Here is a chart which shows the first and second processes, 7.3 Determine Budget and 7.4 Control Costs, together with their tools & techniques (which are discussed in a previous post) and their inputs & outputs.

NOTE:  the generic inputs known as Environmental Enterprise Factors and Operational Process Assets are given by their acronyms EEFs and OPAs, respectively.

Process Name Tools & Techniques Inputs Outputs
7.3 Determine Budget 1. Cost aggregation

2. Reserve analysis

3. Expert judgment

4. Historical information

5. Funding limit reconciliation

 1. Cost management plan

2. Scope baseline

3. Activity cost estimates

4. Basis of estimates

5. Project schedule

6. Resource calendars

7. Risk register

8. Agreements

9. OPAs

1. Cost baseline

2. Project funding requirements

3. Project documents updates

7.4 Control Costs  1. Earned value management

2. Forecasting

3. To-complete performance index (TCPI)

4. Performance reviews

5. Project management software

6. Reserve analysis

1. Project management plan

2. Project funding requirements

3. Work performance data

4. OPAs

1. Work performance information

2. Cost forecasts

3. Change requests

4. Project management plan updates

5. Project documents updates

6. OPAs updates

3.  Outputs of processes 7.3 and 7.4

7.3 Determine Budget is part of the planning process group; 7.4 Control Costs is part of the monitoring & controlling process group.

a. Cost baseline (7.3 Determine Budget)

This is the main output of this process.   The cost baseline is defined as the time-phased project budget, including contingency reserves but excluding management reserves, which can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison with actual results (hence the term “baseline”).

b. Project funding requirements (7.3 Determine Budget)

Total funding requirements and period funding requirements are derived from the cost baseline.    The total funds required are those in the cost baseline plus management reserves.

c. Project documents updates (7.3 Determine Budget, 7.4 Control Costs)

The project documents that may be updated in the process 7.3 Determine Budget  are

  • Risk register
  • Activity cost estimates
  • Project schedule

The project documents that may be updated in the process 7.4 Control Costs are

d. Work performance information (7.4 Control Costs)

Using work performance data, work performance information is calculated using the earned value management quantities such as SV, SPI, CV, CPI, TCPI, and VAC, for work packages and control accounts.

e. Cost forecasts (7.4 Control Costs)

EAC (Estimate At Completion) is determined based on a calculated value or a bottom-up estimation based on the remaining work.

f. Change requests (7.4 Control Costs)

Change requests may include corrective or preventive actions, or a change to the cost baseline itself.  These requests are processed in process 4.5 Perform Integrated Change Control

g. Project management plan updates (7.4 Control Costs)

The cost baseline and the cost management plan may be updated as a part of this process.

h. Project documents updates (7.3 Determine Budget)

These include the

  • Cost estimates
  • Basis of estimates

i. OPAs updates

These include the

  • Causes of variances
  • Corrective action or preventive action recommended, and the reasons for the recommendation
  • Financial databases
  • Lessons learned from cost control

4.  Inputs of processes 7.3 and 7.4 

a. Cost management plan (7.3 Determine Budget)

This is the output of 7.1 Plan Cost Management.   It describes how the project costs will be aggregated into the project cost estimate, the cost baseline, and the project budget.    The cost estimate is the cost of all activities, the cost baseline is the cost estimate plus contingency reserves (cost of risk responses corresponding to risks in the risk register), and the project budget is the cost baseline plus management reserves (cost of workarounds for unplanned for risks).

b. Scope baseline (7.3 Determine Budget)

Contains the three elements of

  • Project scope statement–may include funding constraints, that is, formal limitations by period for expenditure of project funds
  • WBS (Work Breakdown Structure)–provides relationship among all the project deliverables
  • WBS Dictionary–provides a description of the deliverables and a description of the work required to produce each deliverable

c. Activity cost estimates (7.3 Determine Budget)

The cost estimates of individual activities will be aggregated in the “cost aggregation” technique used in this process.

d. Basis of estimates (7.3 Determine Budget)

Specifies any basic assumptions dealing with the inclusion or exclusion or indirect or other costs in the project budget.

e. Project schedule (7.3 Determine Budget)

Includes start and finish dates for the project’s activities, milestones, work packages, and control accounts.   This is used in the “cost aggregation” technique used in this process to aggregate costs in the calendar period in which they are incurred.

f. Resource calendars (7.3 Determine Budget)

Provides information on which resources are assigned to the project and when they are assigned.

g. Risk register (7.3 Determine Budget)

Used to aggregate risk response costs to be included in the contingency reserves.

h. Agreements (7.3 Determine Budget)

Contains information on costs relating to products, services, or results that are purchased for use on the project.

i. OPAs (7.3 Determine Budget, 7.4 Control Costs)

The OPAs that are considered part of the 7.3 Determine Budget and 7.4 Control Costs processes are

  • Formal and informal policies, guidelines, and procedures related to cost budgeting
  • Cost controls
  • Monitoring and reporting methods

j. Project management plan (7.4 Control Costs)

This includes the two components

  • Cost baseline–this is what is compared to actual results to see if a change is necessary
  • Cost management plan–describes how the project costs will be managed and controlled

k. Project funding requirements (7.4 Control Costs)

Includes project expenditures plus anticipated liabilities.

l. Work performance data (7.4 Control Costs)

Includes information about project progress, and about costs which have been authorized and incurred.

5th Edition PMBOK® Guide–Step 6: Memorizing Inputs & Outputs (Cost Management Part 1)


1. Introduction

In this next series of posts on memorizing the processes, we move on to the final step 6, which is memorizing the INPUTS & OUTPUTS associated with each of the 47 processes.   In order to breakdown the memorization into more bite-size chunks, I am breaking down the processes in the 10 knowledge areas into 2 or 3 posts each.

This post covers chapter 7 of the PMBOK® Guide, which covers the Cost Knowledge Area. This knowledge area contains 4 processes, three of which are in the Planning Process group, and the last of which is in the Monitoring & Controlling Process Group.

(I am splitting the discussion of the Inputs & Outputs into two different posts; this post will cover Processes 7.1 Plan Cost Management and 7.2 Estimate Costs.)

 

2.  Review of processes 7.1 and 7.2 ITTOs (Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs)

There are a total of four processes in the Time Management Knowledge Area.   Because of the large number of inputs and outputs, I am splitting my discussion of the inputs and outputs into two different posts, each one of which will cover two of the processes.    In that way, I can describe the inputs and outputs for these processes in a little bit of detail without the post becoming too long.

Here is a chart which shows the first and second processes, 7.1 Plan Cost Management and 7.2 Estimate Costs, together with their tools & techniques (which are discussed in a previous post) and their inputs & outputs.

NOTE:  the generic inputs known as Environmental Enterprise Factors and Operational Process Assets are given by their acronyms EEFs and OPAs, respectively.

Process Name Tools & Techniques Inputs Outputs
7.1 Plan Cost Management 1. Expert judgment

2. Analytical techniques

3. Meetings

1. Project management plan

2. Project charter

3. EEFs

4. OPAs

1. Cost management plan
7.2 Estimate Costs 1. Expert judgment

2. Analogous estimating

3. Parametric estimating

4. Bottom-up estimating

5. Three-point estimating

6. Reserve analysis

7. Cost of quality

8. Project management software

9. Vendor bid analysis

10. Group decision-making techniques

1. Cost management plan

2. Human resource management plan

3. Scope baseline

4. Project schedule

5. Risk register

6. EEFs

7. OPAs

1. Activity cost estimates

2. Basis of estimates

3. Project documents updates

3.  Outputs of processes 7.1 and 7.2

a. Cost management plan (7.1 Plan Cost Management)

This is the main output of the Plan Cost Management process.   The cost management plan describes how the project costs will be planned, structured, and controlled, and contains the following elements:

  • Units of measure, level of precision (the degree to which activity cost estimates will be rounded up or down), level of accuracy (e.g., ±10%)
  • Organizational procedures links (control accounts, the component of the work breakdown structure of WBS used for the project cost accounting)
  • Control thresholds (specifies an agreed-upon amount of variation to be allowed before some action needs to be taken)
  • Rules of performance measurement (sets the rules for earned value measurement or EVM)
  • Reporting formats
  • Process descriptions

b. Activity cost estimates (7.2 Estimate Costs)

Quantitative assessments of the probable costs required to complete project work, including direct labor, materials, equipment, services, facilities, information technology, and special financial categories such as cost of financing and a cost contingency reserve.

c. Basis of estimates (7.2 Estimate Costs)

Additional details supporting the cost estimate.

d. Project documents updates (7.2 Estimate Costs)

Includes the risk register (with costs of risk responses to be included in contingency reserves).

4.  Inputs of processes 7.1 and 7.2

a. Project management plan (7.1 Plan Cost Management)

Contains the scope baseline and the schedule baseline, in addition to other cost-related decisions in the area of risk and communications decisions.

b.  Project charter (7.1 Plan Cost Management)

Provides the summary budget from which the detailed project costs are developed.  Defines the project approval requirements that will influence the management of the project costs.

c.  Cost management plan (7.2 Estimate Costs)

The output of the previous process, the cost management plan defines how project costs will be managed and controlled, and includes the method used and the level of accuracy required to estimate activity cost.

d.  Human resource management plan (7.2 Estimate Costs)

Provides project staffing abilities, personnel rates, and related rewards/recognition, which are necessary components for developing the project cost estimates.

e.  Scope baseline (7.2 Estimate Costs)

Comprised of the

  • Project scope statement
  • WBS
  • WBS dictionary

f.  Project schedule (7.2 Estimate Costs)

The a) type and quantity of resources and b) the amount of time which those resources are applied to complete the work of the project are major factors in determining the project cost.

g.  Risk register (7.2 Estimate Costs)

Needs to be reviewed to consider risk response costs.

h. EEFs (7.1 Plan Cost Management and 7.2 Estimate Costs)

The inputs to the 7.1 Plan Cost Management process and 7.2 Estimate Costts are:

  • Organizational culture and structure
  • Market conditions (which determine what products, services, and results are available in the regional and global market)
  • Currency exchange rates for project costs sourced from more than one country
  • Published commercial information (such as resource cost rate information)
  • Project management information system (provides alternate possibilities for managing cost)

i.  OPAs (7.1 Plan Cost Management and 7.2 Estimate Costs)

The inputs to the 7.1 Plan Cost Management process are:

  • Financial controls procedures
  • Historical information and lessons learned knowledge bases
  • Financial databases
  • Existing formal and informal cost estimating and budgeting-related policies, procedures, and guidelines.

Essential Integral, Lesson Two: Quadrants


Essential Integral, Lesson Two—Quadrants

1.  Introduction

Ken Wilber came up with his quadrant model for categorizing the four dimensions of all phenomena within the universe, or what he refers to as the Kosmos.  This was not an invention of his, but rather a synthesis of the contributions of those that came before.

These four dimensions are irreducible, meaning that there is no way to reduce them to a single dimension, and they are co-arising, meaning that beings evolution not just in one dimension of the universe, but in all four dimensions at once.

This is not just an abstract concept, but something you can have direct experience of.  At this very moment, you can get in touch with your

  • Feelings, thoughts, and emotions (Intentional)
  • Behaviors and physical characteristics (Behavioral)
  • Sense of shared meaning with those you care about (Cultural)
  • Various social groups that you are enmeshed in, such as your family or your company (Social)

These are the quadrants of your life and experience.  They are also perspectives through which you can approach any issue in a more holistic way, such as “why has religion been the source of so much violence?”  If you focus on just one perspective, and exclude the other three, you are engaging in a partial, rather than an integral, discourse.  If you engage in an integral discourse, on the other hand, you give yourself the tools for weaving simplicity out of complexity.

One of the reasons why the first portion of the AQAL model to be taught in Integral Theory is that dealing with the quadrants is because quadrants

  • Keep you honest, in that they hold you to a standard of integrity, and help you recognize your tendency toward taking a partial way.
  • They encourage wholeness and discourage fragmentation, helping you to always see the forest for the trees.

The other elements of the Integral Model, the lines, levels, states, and types, occur in every quadrant.

2.  Interior vs. Exterior

The first distinction one can make to understand the quadrant model is that between interior and exterior.    Graphically this distinction is made between the left side of a square and the right side of a square, with the interior being represented on the left side and the exterior being represented on the right side.   These two regions of the square represent two different dimensions of reality.    Interior refers to phenomena that have no simple spatial location, like √-1, the mathematical quantity known as i, the so-called imaginary number, or the shared feeling of happiness.   None of these exists out there, but rather in one’s mind or one’s awareness.    Rather than looking for them outwardly with one’s senses, you need to look inwardly through your mind’s eye in order to perceive them.   You access interior phenomena through interpretation.

Exterior on the other hand refers to phenomena that do have a spatial location and can be perceived through our senses.    An atom, the behavior of social systems, and brain wave patterns are all observable through our senses or through instruments that extend our senses.   You access exterior phenomena through observations or facts.

So your brain is observable, although it is within your head, and is therefore part of the exterior, whereas the contents of your mind, such as thoughts, cannot be observed directly but instead must be felt or interpreted, and therefore your mind is part of the interior.

A scientist looking at the brain of someone experiencing an interior emotion of happiness may see indicators that are observable such as increased levels of dopamine, and an increase in alpha brain waves.   On the other hand, if you had never personally experienced the emotion of happiness, just knowing that someone had increased levels of dopamine and an increase in alpha brain waves, would you really be able to understand what “happiness” was?     Those data that you were observing would be the biological and chemical processes associated with happiness, the exterior of the phenomenon of happiness.   You would not be able to understand the interior of the phenomenon of happiness except through direct, personal experience of the emotion.

The Mystic Arts of Tibet–Sacred Music and Sacred Dance for World Healing


1.   Introduction

On October 19, 2013, the Nathan Manilow theater at Freedom Hall in Park Forest, IL, sponsored an performance by the Tibetan monks of Drepung Loseling Monastery.   The monastery was established near Lhasa, Tibet in 1916 as a spiritual institution dedicated to preserving and transmitting ancient Buddhist scholarly and contemplative traditions.

When the Chinese took over Tibet in the 1950s and destroyed the monastery, the monks fled to Southern India and reformed their community.    Since then, the Drepung Loseling Monastery has devoted itself to spreading the word about these ancient Buddhist traditions to all parts of the world.

My first encounter with the Tibetan monks of the monastery was through an appearance of a video showing one of their outdoor performances of their ceremonies in the Power of Myth, a series of six hour-long programs containing interviews between the journalist Bill Moyer and the mythologist Joseph Campbell.    As an illustration of the difference between the personal conception of God, which is common to the Western religious traditions stemming from the three Abrahamic faiths, and an impersonal or transpersonal conception of God, which is common to the Eastern religious traditions stemming from Hinduism and Buddhism, Joseph Campbell said that the ceremonial dance and music as performed by the Tibetan monks illustrated in a visceral way the power that the conception of an impersonal or transpersonal God could have for people.    He described the Tibetan conception of God as more “elemental”, i.e., tied to the power of the elements that form the universe.

2.  Multiphonic technique

Then the video showed the monks chanting in the multiphonic way that seems strange or eerie to Western ears at first, and you could almost feel the energy of the universe vibrating behind the vibrating vocal cords that produced the chants.   In multiphonic singing, the monks shape their vocal cavities to create overtones which are heard over the deep bass rumbling of their chants.     When I saw the Tibetan monks in person at the concert, it was literally mindblowing.  The resulting sound reminded me of winds blowing through canyons and creating echoes as they funnel through the vast complex stonescapes surrounding them.

After the concert, I started to muse about the difference that this chanting had on me as compared to the effect of traditional Western music.

3.  The Beautiful

To get a clue to the power behind the Tibetan monks’ performance, I turned back to Joseph Campbell, who talks about the two philosophical concepts associated with the field of aesthetics, that of the beautiful, and that of the sublime.    Now we have a pretty good idea of what is meant by the beautiful in every day–or at least we should have a good idea.    In his lectures on James Joyce, Joseph Campbell talks about the experience of beautiful as described by Stephen Dedalus’ character in Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.    The three terms the character uses to describe the experience of beauty when contemplating a work of art come from Aristotle’s work The Poetics, and they are (in the Latin version of the terms from Greek)

  • Integritas
  • Consonantia
  • Claritas

Integritas is taking a frame and putting it around the work of art.    A pile of bricks is just a pile of bricks.   Put it in the corner of an art gallery and put a rope around it or put it in a glass case, with a note by the side labeling and giving the name of the artist and voila!    It is now a work of art.     The integritas component of a work of art consists of the rules and formalisms of the artistic medium.

Consonantia is the relationship between the parts and the other parts, and the parts to the whole of the work of art.   Once a fortunate relationship has been struck that creates a resonance within the viewer, then the final magic of art happens, namely …

Claritas, or the radiance of the work of art which “speaks” to the person who is viewing it.    The consonantia is what is created within the art work, but the claritas is what leaps out from the art work and connects with those viewing it.

The Western tradition of art, with its emphasis on the aesthetics of the beautiful, is very congruent with the Western conception of a personal God, where man relates to God, for example, in Christianity, through the symbol of a person (Jesus) with whom one can relate.

4.   The Sublime

What happens if God is not conceived as a person, but almost like a force of nature?   Then you get the experience of the sublime, the fundamental awe in front of the mystery of being.     The word “awe” is onomatopoetic if you think about it.   If you are in “awe” of something, you will have an open-mouthed expression on your face that mimics the position of the mouth you have when you are saying the word “awe.”

Very little in Western Art, according to Joseph Campbell, is in the mode of the Sublime as opposed to the Beautiful.   There are some passages in the book of Job where it describes the voice of Yahweh coming out of the whirlwind, where the sense of the Sublime is reached.    In fact, one of the points of the book of Job is that mankind will always fail when he tries to describe the creator in human terms because of the tremendously unbalanced nature of the relationship.

In Tibetan art, the notion of God is not that of a personal God, but more of the impersonal of transpersonal mystery of Being.    There you cannot relate to it as an equal, or do as we do in the West, and pray to God expecting the deity to intervene in our personal affairs.    There the conception of God is more elemental, as Joseph Campbell says, so rather than praying to it, it’s as if the ceremonies of the Tibetan monks are getting you to relate to get in tune with that mystery.

You can speak in conceptual terms about these things, but if you listen to the chanting the monks do, together with the crashing of cymbals and sounding of the deep bass long horns, you will experience what it is like to ride on a wave of acoustical energy.

When I saw that video years ago, I never imagined I would experience it in person.    I am glad that the Nathan Manilow Theater at Freedom Hall in Park Forest took the bold and adventurous step of introducing the people of the south Suburbs of Chicago to this thrilling event!

 

5th Edition PMBOK® Guide–Step 6: Memorizing Inputs & Outputs (Time Management Part 3)


1. Introduction

In this next series of posts on memorizing the processes, we move on to the final step 6, which is memorizing the INPUTS & OUTPUTS associated with each of the 47 processes.   In order to breakdown the memorization into more bite-size chunks, I am breaking down the processes in the 10 knowledge areas into 2 or 3 posts each.

This post covers chapter 6 of the PMBOK® Guide, which covers the Time Knowledge Area. This knowledge area contains 7 processes, six of which are in the Planning Process group, and the last of which is in the Monitoring & Controlling Process Group.

(I am splitting the discussion of the Inputs & Outputs into three different posts; this post will cover Processes 6.6 Develop Schedule through 6.7 Control Schedule.)

2.  Review of processes 6.6 through 6.7 ITTOs (Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs)

There are a total of seven processes in the Time Management Knowledge Area.   Because of the large number of inputs and outputs, I am splitting my discussion of the inputs and outputs into three different posts, each one of which will cover two of the processes.    In that way, I can describe the inputs and outputs for these processes in a little bit of detail without the post becoming too long.

Here is a chart which shows the sixth and seventh processes, 6.6 Develop Schedule and 6.7 Control Schedule together with their tools & techniques (which are discussed in a previous post) and their inputs & outputs.

NOTE:  the generic inputs known as Environmental Enterprise Factors and Operational Process Assets are given by their acronyms EEFs and OPAs, respectively.

Process Name Tools & Techniques Inputs Outputs
6.6 Develop Schedule 1. Schedule network analysis

2. Critical path method

3. Critical chain method

4. Resource optimization techniques

5. Modeling techniques

6. Leads and lags

7. Schedule compression

8. Scheduling tool

1. Schedule management plan

2. Activity list

3. Activity attributes

4. Project schedule network diagrams

5. Activity resource requirements

6. Resource calendars

7. Activity duration estimates

8. Project scope statement

9. Risk register

10. Project staff assignements

11. Resource breakdown structure

12. EEFs

13. OPAs

1. Schedule baseline

2. Project schedule

3. Schedule data

4. Project calendars

5. Project management plan updates

6. Project documents updates

6.7 Control Schedule 1. Performance reviews

2. Project management software

3. Resource optimization techniques

4. Modeling techniques

5. Leads and lags

6. Schedule compression

7. Scheduling tool

1. Project management plan

2. Project schedule

3. Work performance data

4. Project calendars

5. Schedule data

6. OPAs

1. Work performance information

2. Schedule forecasts

3. Change requests

4. Project management plan updates

5. Project documents updates

6. OPAs updates

3.  Outputs for processes 6.6 through 6.7

The outputs are more obvious to understand than the inputs, so I start with those.

a. Schedule baseline (6.6 Develop Schedule)

The main output of the Develop Schedule process is the schedule baseline, which is defined as “the approved version of a schedule model that can be changed only through formal change control procedures.”   It is used as the basis of comparison with the actual results.   It is one of the performance baselines, and is one of the components of the overall project management plan.

The reason why PMI insists on calling it the “schedule model” rather just “the schedule” is because the schedule model is affected by the assumptions that go into its creation.    The term “project schedule” is considered the output of the schedule model.   If the assumptions that go into the “schedule model” are changed, the output (the project schedule) will also be changed.

b. Project schedule (6.6 Develop Schedule)

As mentioned in the previous paragraph, the project schedule is the output of the schedule model.     It can be represented in different forms, such as bar charts or as project network schedule diagrams.

c. Schedule data (6.6 Develop Schedule)

The information used for describing and controlling the schedule, which includes the following:

  • Schedule milestones
  • Schedule activities
  • Activity attributes
  • Identified assumptions and constraints
  • Resource requirements by time period (often in the form of a resource histogram)
  • Alternate schedules (worst case, best case, etc.)
  • Scheduling of contingency reserves

d. Project calendars (6.6 Develop Schedule)

Identifies working days and shifts available for scheduled activities.

e. Project management plan updates (6.6 Develop Schedule and (6.7 Control Schedule)

The schedule management plan and the schedule baseline may be updated as a result of these processes.

f. Project documents updates (6.6 Develop Schedule)

  • Activity resource requirements (resource leveling may have an effect on preliminary estimates for the types and quantities of resources required)
  • Activity attributes (may be updated to include any revised resource requirements)
  • Calendars
  • Risk register (may be updated to reflect opportunities or threats perceived through scheduling assumptions)

g. Work performance information (6.7 Control Schedule)

The calculated SV (schedule variance = EV – PV) and SPI (schedule performance index = EV/PV) time performance indicators for WBS work packages and control accounts.

h. Schedule forecasts (6.7 Control Schedule)

Predictions of conditions and events in the project’s future based on information and knowledge available at the time.

i. Change requests (6.7 Control Schedule)

Schedule variance analysis may result in change requests to the schedule baseline and other components of the project management plan.   These outputs of this process are then input into the 4.5 Perform Integrated Change Control process for analysis of the change requests and either acceptance or rejection.

j. OPAs updates (6.7 Control Schedule)

  • Schedule data
  • Project Schedule
  • Risk register (may be updated based on risks that arise from schedule compression techniques)

4.  Inputs for processes 6.6 through 6.7

a. Schedule management plan (6.6 Develop Schedule)

Identifies the scheduling method and tool used to create the schedule, and how the schedule is to be calculated.

b. Activity list (6.6 Develop Schedule)

Identifies the activities to be included in the schedule model.

c. Activity attributes (6.6 Develop Schedule)

Provides the details used to build the schedule model.

d. Project schedule network diagrams (6.6 Develop Schedule)

Contain the logical relationships of predecessors and successors that will be used to calculate the schedule.

e. Activity resource requirements (6.6 Develop Schedule)

Identifies the types and quantities of resources required for each activity used to create the schedule model.

f. Resource calendars (6.6 Develop Schedule)

Contains information on the availability of resources during the project.

g. Activity duration estimates (6.6 Develop Schedule)

Contains quantitative assessments of the likely number of work periods that will be required to complete an activity that will be used to calculate the project schedule.

h. Project scope statement (6.6 Develop Schedule)

Contains assumptions and constraints that can impact the development of the project schedule.

i. Risk register (6.6 Develop Schedule)

Provides the details of all identified risks and their characteristics that affect the schedule model.

j. Project staff assignments (6.6 Develop Schedule)

Specifies which resources are assigned to each activity.

k. Resource breakdown structure (6.6 Develop Schedule)

Provides the details by which resource analysis and organizational reporting to be done.

l. EEFs (6.6 Develop Schedule)

The EEFs used as inputs for 6.6 Develop Schedule may include

  • Scheduling standards
  • Communication channels
  • Scheduling tool to be used in developing the schedule model

m. OPAs (6.6 Develop Schedule and 6.7 Control Schedule)

The OPAs used as inputs for 6.6 Develop Schedule may include

  • Scheduling methodology
  • Project calendars

n. Project management plan (6.7 Control Schedule)

In particular, the two elements that are used as inputs for 6.7 Control Schedule are:

  • Scheduling management plan–describes how the schedule will be managed and controlled
  • Schedule baseline–used as reference to compare to actual results to determine if a variance exists, and if a change is necessary

o. Project schedule (6.7 Control Schedule)

The most recent version with notations to indicate updates, completed activities, and activities started as of the indicated date.

p. Work performance data (6.7 Control Schedule)

Information about project progress such as

  • which activities have started
  • progress (percent complete, actual duration of activity,remaining duration of activity)

q. Project calendars (6.7 Control Schedule)

A schedule model may require more than one project calendar to allow for different work periods for some activities in order to calculate the schedule forecasts.

e. Schedule data (6.7 Control Schedule)

Will be reviewed and updated in the Control Schedule process.

5.  CONCLUSION

The way to review inputs and outputs is take one sheet of paper for each process, label each with the name of the process and put it in front of you on a table.    Take index cards and write down the inputs and outputs.    Then shuffle the cards, and draw one at a time, and try to identify which process they go with.    If you understand the processes and the tools & techniques that are used in them, then you will probably get a majority of them correct.

Alternately, take flip charts that consist of tear-off sheets like post-it notes and stick them on a wall, one for each process.    Then take smaller post-its and use them for the inputs and outputs which will be stuck on the giant post-it sheets that contain the processes.   

In any case, don’t try to actively remember the list of inputs and outputs, but rather be able to passively recognize from a list of possible inputs or outputs which one is more likely to go with a given process.   That is what you will have to do for the PMP or CAPM exam.

Next will I will start on the inputs and outputs associated with the cost management knowledge area, which is covered by Chapter 7 of the PMBOK® Guide.

 

th Edition PMBOK® Guide–Step 6: Memorizing Inputs & Outputs (Time Management Part 2)


1. Introduction

In this next series of posts on memorizing the processes, we move on to the final step 6, which is memorizing the INPUTS & OUTPUTS associated with each of the 47 processes.   In order to breakdown the memorization into more bite-size chunks, I am breaking down the processes in the 10 knowledge areas into 2 or 3 posts each.

This post covers chapter 6 of the PMBOK® Guide, which covers the Time Knowledge Area. This knowledge area contains 7 processes, six of which are in the Planning Process group, and the last of which is in the Monitoring & Controlling Process Group.

(I am splitting the discussion of the Inputs & Outputs into three different posts; this post will cover Processes 6.4 through 6.5.)

2.  Review of processes 6.4 through 6.5 ITTOs (Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs)

There are a total of seven processes in the Time Management Knowledge Area.   Because of the large number of inputs and outputs, I am splitting my discussion of the inputs and outputs into three different posts, each one of which will cover two of the processes.    In that way, I can describe the inputs and outputs for these processes in a little bit of detail without the post becoming too long.

Here is a chart which shows the fourth and fifth processes, 6.4 Estimate Activity Resources and 6.5 Estimate Activity Durations together with their tools & techniques (which are discussed in a previous post) and their inputs & outputs.

NOTE:  the generic inputs known as Environmental Enterprise Factors and Operational Process Assets are given by their acronyms EEFs and OPAs, respectively.

Process Name Tools & Techniques Inputs Outputs
6.5 Estimate Activity Resources 1. Expert judgment

2. Alternative analysis

3. Published estimating data

4. Bottom-up estimating

5. Project management software

1. Schedule management plan

2. Activity list

3. Activity attributes

4. Resource calendars

5. Risk register

6. Activity cost estimates

7. EEFs

8. OPAs

1. Activity resource requirements

2. Resource breakdown structure

3. Project documents updates

6.6 Estimate Activity Durations 1. Expert judgment

2. Analogous estimating

3. Parametric estimating

4. Three-point estimating

5. Group decision-making techniques

6. Reserve analysis

1. Schedule management plan

2. Activity list

3. Activity attributes

4. Activity resource requirements

5. Resource calendars

6. Project scope statement

7. Risk register

8. Resource breakdown structure

9. EEFs

10. OPAs

1. Activity duration estimates

2. Project documents updates

3.  Outputs for processes 6.4 through 6.5

Outputs are listed first because they are generally easier to understand than the inputs.   You can generally tell what dish a cook is going to make by looking at a list of ingredients; it takes a more experienced cook to taste a dish and tell you all the ingredients that went into it.    So let’s discuss the outputs for these two processes …

a.  Activity resource requirements (6.4 Estimate Activity Resources)

This identifies the types and amounts of resources available for each activity.   Optional information may include

  • the basis for the estimate of the amounts of resources available
  • assumptions made in determining the types of resources to be applied
  • availability of resources (when during the project are they available, and when are they “offline”)

b.   Resource breakdown structure (6.4 Estimate Activity Resources)

This is a hierarchical representation of resources available arranged by category and type.    Categories of resources include

  • Labor
  • Material
  • Equipment
  • Supplies

and types of resources include skill level and grade level.

c.  Project documents updates (6.4 Estimate Activity Resources)

These three types of project documents are inputs to the process, and they get updated as a result of this process.   For example, the activity resource requirements (described in paragraph a above) are used to update the activity list and activity attributes.

  • Activity list
  • Activity attributes
  • Resource calendars

d.  Activity duration estimates (6.5 Estimate Activity Durations)

This is the main output of the 6.5 Estimate Activity Durations process.   Activity duration estimates are quantitative assessments of the likely number of work periods that are required to complete an activity.   The estimate may include some indication of the range of possible results, such as 2 weeks ± 2 days.

e.  Project Documents updates (6.5 Estimate Activity Durations)

  • Activity attributes (duration estimates will be added)
  • Assumptions made in developing the activity duration estimate (such as skill levels and availability)
  • Basis for estimates for durations (based on historical information, commercial databases, etc.)

4.  Inputs for processes 6.4 through 6.5

a.  Schedule management plan (6.4 Estimate Activity Resources, 6.5 Estimate Activity Durations)

The elements of the schedule management plan that are relevant to the process 6.4 Estimate Activity Resources and 6.5 Estimate Activity Durations are

  • Level of accuracy of estimates
  • Units of measure for the resources to be estimated

b.  Activity list, c. Activity attributes (6.4 Estimate Activity Resources, 6.5 Estimate Activity Durations)

The activity list and the activity attributes are the next level down in specificity from the WBS and the WBS dictionary.   However, the WBS consists of deliverables which are nouns, and the activity list contains activities which are verbs (used to create the deliverables in the WBS).

The activity list is used to identify those activities that need resources.   The activity attributes provides primary data used in estimating the resources required for each activity in the activity list.    These inputs are used for both processes 6.4 Estimate Activity Resources and 6.5 Estimate Activity Durations.

d.   Resource calendars (6.4 Estimate Activity Resources, 6.5 Estimate Activity Durations)

This identifies the working days and shifts of the project on which each specific resource (human resources, equipment, or material) is available.    The type of resource available will have an affect on the estimate of the duration of activity; for example, an experienced staff member may be expected to take less time than a relatively less experienced staff member.

e.   Activity resource requirements (6.5 Estimate Activity Durations)

This input to process 6.5 Estimate Activity Durations is an output of process 6.4 Estimate Activity Resources.   The types of resources available may have an impact on the estimate of the activity duration; for example, lower-skilled resources may take longer to do a particular activity than more experienced resources.

f.   Activity cost estimates (6.4 Estimate Activity Resources)

The cost of resources may impact resource selection.

g.   Risk register (6.4 Estimate Activity Resources, 6.5 Estimate Activity Durations)

Risk events may impact resource selection and availability.

h.  Project scope statement (6.5 Estimate Activity Durations)

The assumptions listed in the project scope statement that may affect the estimate of activity durations are

  • Existing conditions regarding availability of resources
  • Availability of accurate information regarding type of resources available
  • Length of reporting periods

The constraints listed in the project scope statement that may affect the estimate of activity durations are

  • Available skilled resources
  • Contract terms and requirements

i.   Resource breakdown structure (6.5 Estimate Activity Durations)

This input to process 6.5 Estimate Activity Durations is an output of process 6.4 Estimate Activity Resources.  The resource breakdown structure or RBS  provides a hierarchical structure of the identified resources by resource category (labor, material, equipment, supplies and resource type (skill level and grade level).

j.  EEFs (6.4 Estimate Activity Resources, 6.5 Estimate Activity Durations)

The resource location, availability, and skill levels may influence the Estimate Activity Resources process.   The following may influence the Estimate Activity Durations process

  • Databases and other reference data for estimating durations
  • Productivity metrics
  • Published commercial information on activity durations
  • Location of team members

k.  OPAs (6.4 Estimate Activity Resources, 6.5 Estimate Activity Durations)

  • Policies and procedures regarding staffing
  • Policies and procedures regarding rental and purchase of supplies and equipment
  • Project calendars
  • Scheduling methodology
  • Historical information regarding types of resources used for work on similar projects in the past

These are the inputs and outputs for the fourth and fifth  processes.   The next post will cover the inputs and outputs for process 6.6 Develop Schedule and 6.7 Control Schedule.

5th Edition PMBOK® Guide–Step 6: Memorizing Inputs & Outputs (Time Management Part 1)


1. Introduction

In this next series of posts on memorizing the processes, we move on to the final step 6, which is memorizing the INPUTS & OUTPUTS associated with each of the 47 processes.   In order to breakdown the memorization into more bite-size chunks, I am breaking down the processes in the 10 knowledge areas into 2 or 3 posts each.

This post covers chapter 5 of the PMBOK® Guide, which covers the Time Knowledge Area. This knowledge area contains 7 processes, six of which are in the Planning Process group, and the last of which is in the Monitoring & Controlling Process Group.

(I am splitting the discussion of the Inputs & Outputs into three different posts; this post will cover Processes 6.1 through 6.3.)

2.  Review of processes 6.1 through 6.6 ITTOs (Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs)

There are a total of seven processes in the Time Management Knowledge Area.   Because of the large number of inputs and outputs, I am splitting my discussion of the inputs and outputs into three different posts, each one of which will cover two of the processes.    In that way, I can describe the inputs and outputs for these processes in a little bit of detail without the post becoming too long.

Here is a chart which shows the first, second and third processes, 6.1 Plan Schedule Management, 6.2 Define Activities and 6.3 Sequence Activities together with their tools & techniques (which are discussed in a previous post) and their inputs & outputs.

NOTE:  the generic inputs known as Environmental Enterprise Factors and Operational Process Assets are given by their acronyms EEFs and OPAs, respectively.

Process Name Tools & Techniques Inputs Outputs
6.1 Plan Schedule Management 1. Expert judgment2. Analytical techniques

3. Meetings

1. Project management plan2. Project charter

3. EEFs

4. OPAs

1. Schedule management plan
6.2 Define Activities 1. Decomposition2. Rolling wave planning

3. Expert judgment

1. Schedule management plan2. Scope baseline

3. EEFs

4. OPAs

1. Activity list2. Activity attributes

3. Milestone list

6.3 Sequence Activities 1. Precedence diagramming method (PDM)2. Dependency determination

3. Leads and lags

1. Schedule management plan2. Activity lists

3. Activity attributes

4. Milestone list

5. Project scope statement

6. EEFs

7. OPAs

1. Project schedule network diagrams2. Project documents updates

3.  Outputs for processes 6.1 through 6.3

a. Schedule management plan (6.1 Plan Schedule Management)

It should be obvious than the main output of the process 6.1 Plan Schedule Management is the Schedule Management Plan.   What are the important elements of the Schedule Management Plan?   These include …

  • Project schedule module development (scheduling methodology and scheduling tools)
  • Level of accuracy (used in determining realistic activity duration estimates)
  • Project schedule module maintenance (used to update status and record progress of the project)
  • Control thresholds (agreed-upon amount of variation to be allowed before action takes place)

b. Activity list (6.2 Define Activities)

Includes all schedule activities required on the project.

c. Activity attributes (6.2 Define Activities)

The activity attributes are the identifiers for each activity that include who is going to do the activity, the resources and costs required to do the activity, and other helpful descriptions of the activity.    These have the same relation to the activity list that the WBS dictionary has to the WBS.

d. Milestone lists (6.2 Define Activities)

This is a list of significant points or events in the project.    Milestones may be required by contract, or may be optional, based on historical information (what was done on previous projects).

e. Project schedule network diagrams (6.3 Sequence Activities)

This is a graphical representation of the logical relationships (also called dependencies) among the project schedule activities.   This output is crucial for figuring out the critical path of a project, which represents the longest path through a project, which determines the shortest possible duration that the project will require to be completed.

f. Project documents updates (6.3 Sequence Activities)

The documents that may be updated are the

  • Activity list
  • Activity attributes
  • Milestone list

which are the outputs of the 6.2 Define Activities process, but updated to include for each activity the predecessor and successor activity, after the 6.3 Sequence Activities process has been completed.

4.  Inputs for processes 6.1 through 6.3

a.  Project management plan (6.1 Plan Schedule Management)

In particular, the following parts of the scope management plan are the most important inputs from the project management plan:

  • Scope baseline (project scope statement, WBS)–used for defining activities and duration estimation

b.  Schedule management plan (6.2 Define Activities, 6.3 Sequence Activities)

In particular, the prescribed level of detail necessary to manage the work.

c.  Project charter (6.1 Plan Schedule Management)

Defines the summary milestone schedule and project approval requirements that will influence the management of the project schedule.

d.  Scope baseline (6.2 Define Activities)

The WBS contains the deliverables which must be broken down into the activities required to achieve them.

e.  Activity Lists, f. Activity Attributes, g. Milestone lists (6.3 Sequence Activities)

Activity lists includes all schedule activities required on the project.

Activity attributes are the identifiers for each activity that include who is going to do the activity, the resources and costs required to do the activity, and other helpful descriptions of the activity.    These have the same relation to the activity list that the WBS dictionary has to the WBS.

Milestones are a list of significant points or events in the project.    Milestones may be required by contract, or may be optional, based on historical information (what was done on previous projects).

These three are outputs of process 6.2 Define Activities are the inputs of the process 6.3 Sequence Activities.   This is the usual pattern of inputs and outputs, where the outputs of one process become the inputs of the following process.

h. Project scope statement (6.3 Sequence Activities)

Contains the product scope description, which may include product characteristics that affect the sequencing of the activities.   The project deliverables, project constraints, and project assumptions may also affect activity sequencing.

i. EEFs (6.1 Plan Schedule Management, 6.2 Define Activities, and 6.3 Sequence Activities)

The EEFs that are used as inputs in 6.1 Plan Schedule Management and 6.2 Define Activities are:

  • Organizational culture and structure
  • Resource availability and skills
  • Project management information system
  • Organizational work authorization systems

j.  OPAs (6.1 Plan Schedule Management, 6.2 Define Activities, and 6.3 Sequence Activities)

The OPAs that are used as inputs in 6.1 Plan Schedule Management and 6.2 Define Activities include:

  • Policies, procedures, and guidlines for formal and informal schedule control
  • Schedule control tools
  • Lessons learned database

These are the inputs and outputs for the first three processes.   The next post will cover the inputs and outputs for process 6.4 Estimate Activity Resources and 6.5 Estimate Activity Durations.

5th Edition PMBOK® Guide–Step 6: Memorizing Inputs & Outputs (Scope Management Part 3)


1. Introduction

In this next series of posts on memorizing the processes, we move on to the final step 6, which is memorizing the INPUTS & OUTPUTS associated with each of the 47 processes.   In order to breakdown the memorization into more bite-size chunks, I am breaking down the processes in the 10 knowledge areas into 2 or 3 posts each.

This post covers chapter 5 of the PMBOK® Guide, which covers the Scope Knowledge Area. This knowledge area contains 6 processes,

2.  Review of processes 5.5 and 5.6 and their ITTOs

NOTE:   ITTOs is an acronym for Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs

There are a total of six processes in the Scope Knowledge Area.   Because of the large number of inputs and outputs, I am splitting my discussion of the inputs and outputs into three different posts, each one of which will cover two of the processes.    In that way, I can describe the inputs and outputs for these processes in a little bit of detail without the post becoming too long.

Here is a chart which shows the fifth and sixth process, 5.5 Validate Scope and 5.6 Control Scope, together with their tools & techniques (which are discussed in a previous post) and their inputs & outputs.

NOTE:  the generic inputs known as Environmental Enterprise Factors and Operational Process Assets are given by their acronyms EEFs and OPAs, respectively.

Process Name Tools & Techniques Inputs Outputs
5.5 Validate Scope 1. Inspection

2. Group decision-making techniques

1. Project management plan

2. Requirements documentation

3.  Requirements traceability matrix

4. Verified deliverables

5. Work performance data

1.  Accepted deliverables

2. Change requests

3.  Work performance information

4. Project documents updates

5.6 Control Scope 1. Variance analysis 1. Project management plan

2. Requirements documentation

3. Requirements traceability matrix

4. Work performance data

5. OPAs

1. Work performance information

2. Change requests

3. Project management plan updates

4. Project documents updates

5. OPAs updates

3.  Outputs of processes 5.5 and 5.6

a. Accepted deliverables (5.5 Validate Scope)

The process 5.5 Validate Scope is one where the customer takes the verified deliverables (internally checked by the organization doing the project through the 8.3 Control Quality process), and then checks them or validates them based on the acceptance criteria set forth at the beginning of the project.    That is why accepted deliverables (accepted by the customer, that is) are the main output of this process.

b. Change requests (5.5 Validate Scope)

What happens if the deliverables are NOT accepted, or only PARTIALLY accepted?   That is where the change request comes in.   If there are nonconformities that are discovered in the 5.5 Validate Scope process, then a request for defect repair may occur.

c. Work performance information (5.5 Validate Scope and 5.6 Control Scope)

After the customer has done an inspection of deliverables, then information on which deliverables have been finished so far, and which have been accepted by the customer, is documented for communication to stakeholders.

d. Project management plan updates (5.6 Control Scope)

If change requests are made and approved, the updates may include:

  • Scope baseline updates (if project scope statement, WBS and/or WBS dictionary are revised)
  • Schedule, cost baseline updates (if scope changes cause corresponding changes in schedule and/or budget)

e.  Project documents updates (5.5 Validate Scope and 5.6 Control Scope)

For the 5.5 Validate Scope process, the outputs that may be updated could include:

  • Product completion status report
  • Approvals of deliverables from customer or sponsor

For the 5.6 Control Scope process, the documents that may be updated could include:

  • Requirements documentation
  • Requirements traceability matrix

f.  OPAs updates (5.6 Control Scope)

  • Causes of variances (the result of the main tool & technique of this process, Variance Analysis)
  • Corrective action chosen based on the cause of variance
  • Lessons learned from project scope control (for use on future projects)

4.  Inputs of processes 5.3 and 5.4

a. Project management plan (5.5 Validate Scope and 5.6 Control Scope)

The elements of the project management that are inputs to the process 5.5 Validate Scope are

  • Scope Management Plan–specifies how formal acceptance of the completed project deliverables will be obtained
  • Scope baseline (project scope statement, WBS, & WBS dictionary)–used as a basis for comparison between the actual deliverable and the approved scope

The elements of the project management that are inputs to the process 5.6 Control Scope are

  • Scope baseline (project scope statement, WBS, & WBS dictionary)–compared to actual results to determine if changes are necessary
  • Scope management plan–describes how scope will be monitored and controlled
  • Change management plan–describes process for managing changes on the project
  • Configuration management plan–defines those items that require formal change control, and outlines process for controlling changes to those items
  • Requirements management plan–describes how the requirements will be managed

b. Requirements documentation (5.5 Validate Scope and 5.6 Control Scope)

Lists all the various types of requirements for the product and the project, as well as their acceptance criteria.  Well-documented requirements make it easier to detect any deviation in the scope agreed for the project or product.

c. Requirements traceability matrix (5.5 Validate Scope and 5.6 Control Scope)

Links the requirements to their origin and tracks them throughout the project life cycle.  Helps detect the impact of any change or deviation from the scope baseline.

d. Verified deliverables (5.5 Validate Scope)

Deliverables that have been internally checked through the 8.3 Control Quality process or verified, and are ready to be sent to the customer to be checked through the 5.5 Validate Scope process or validated.

e. Work performance data (5.5 Validate Scope and 5.6 Control Scope)

This may include such relevant data for 5.5 Validate Scope

  • degree of compliance with requirements
  • number of nonconformities
  • degree of nonconformities

For 5.6 Control Scope, may include

  • Number of change requests received
  • Number of change requests accepted

f.  OPAs (5.6 Control Scope)

  • Policies, procedures, and guidelines for formal and informal scope control
  • Methods and templates used to monitor & control scope

As I have mentioned before in other posts, do not try to memorize the lists of inputs and outputs.   If you know what the process does, and you know what the tools & techniques of that process are, then if you are presented with a list of inputs and/or outputs, you should be able to pick out which ones belong to that process.    This is what you will have to do on the exam.    A way to test to see if you are sufficiently conversant in what inputs and outputs go with what process, take six pieces of paper and write down the names of the six processes in the Scope Management knowledge area.    Take a series of index cards (or post-it notes) and write down the names of the inputs and outputs.   Then shuffle these cards (it’s harder to shuffle post-it notes) and then look at the inputs and outputs one by one and try to match them with the process you think it belongs to.    Then check with the PMBOK® Guide to see how many you got right.   You’ll be surprised at how many you get right the first time, IF you have taken the trouble to understand the process and the tools & techniques that are used in the process.

The next post will start a series of three posts on chapter 6, which covers the 7 processes of the Time Management Area.   I will cover processes 6.1-6.3 in the first post, 6.4 and 6.5 in the second post, and finally 6.6 and 6.7 in the third post.

5th Edition PMBOK® Guide–Step 6: Memorizing Inputs & Outputs (Scope Management Part 2)


1. Introduction

In this next series of posts on memorizing the processes, we move on to the final step 6, which is memorizing the INPUTS & OUTPUTS associated with each of the 47 processes.   In order to breakdown the memorization into more bite-size chunks, I am breaking down the processes in the 10 knowledge areas into 2 or 3 posts each.

This post covers chapter 5 of the PMBOK® Guide, which covers the Scope Knowledge Area. This knowledge area contains 6 processes,

2.  Review of processes 5.3 and 5.4 and their ITTOs

NOTE:   ITTOs is an acronym for Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs

There are a total of six processes in the Scope Knowledge Area.   Because of the large number of inputs and outputs, I am splitting my discussion of the inputs and outputs into three different posts, each one of which will cover two of the processes.    In that way, I can describe the inputs and outputs for these processes in a little bit of detail without the post becoming too long.

Here is a chart which shows the third and fourth process, 5.3 Define Scope and 5.4 Create WBS, together with their tools & techniques (which are discussed in a previous post) and their inputs & outputs.

NOTE:  the generic inputs known as Environmental Enterprise Factors and Operational Process Assets are given by their acronyms EEFs and OPAs, respectively.

Process Name Tools & Techniques Inputs Outputs
5.3 Define Scope 1. Expert judgment

2. Product analysis

3. Alternatives generation

4. Facilitated workshops

1. Scope management plan

2. Project charter

3. Requirements documentation

4. OPAs

1. Project scope statement

2. Project documents updates

5.4 Create WBS 1. Decomposition

2. Expert judgment

1. Scope management plan

2. Project scope statement

3. Requirements documentation

4. EEFs

5. OPAs

1. Scope baseline

2. Project documents updates

3.  Outputs of processes 5.3 and 5.4

a. Project scope statement (5.3 Define Scope)

Just as a general reminder, the description of the scope goes through the following development:

Project statement of work (SOW) –> Project charter –> Project scope statement

The project scope statement is the most detailed description of the scope, and it constitutes one of the three components of the scope baseline, the other two components being the Work Breakdown Structure or WBS (created in the next process 5.4 Create WBS) and the WBS dictionary.

Here are the components of the Project scope statement:

  • Product scope description–detailed description of the product, result, or service described in the project charter and requirements documentation
  • Deliverable–any product, result, or service, and their corresponding project management reports and documentation
  • Acceptance criteria–what conditions must be met in order for the deliverables to be accepted
  • Project exclusion–what is explicitly NOT included in the project
  • Constraints–limiting factor that affects the execution of a project (e.g., predefined budget, imposed deadlines)
  • Assumptions–factors in the planning process that are assumed to be true; includes analysis of potential impact of those factors if they are prove to be false.

One understated component of the project scope statement is the “project exclusion”.   By stating up front what is NOT going to be in the project, it helps, as PMI notes in the PMBOK® Guide, to manage stakeholders’ expectations.  But it also helps to prevent unnecessary change requests, another benefit to the project which is not mentioned in the Guide.

b. Project documents updates (5.3 Define Scope and 5.4 Create WBS)

Project document updates that are outputs of the 5.3 Define Scope process may include:

  • Stakeholder register
  • Requirements documentation
  • Requirements traceability matrix

c. Scope baseline (5.4 Create WBS)

Once the WBS and the WBS dictionary are created as an output of the process 5.4 Create WBS, they form, in combination with the project scope statement (the output of the process 5.3 Define Scope), the scope baseline.

4.  Inputs of processes 5.3 and 5.4

a.  Scope management plan (5.3 Define Scope and 5.4 Define WBS)

This establishes the activities for developing the scope and creating the WBS.

b. Project charter (5.3 Define Scope)

This provides a high-level project description, product characteristics, and project approval requirements.

c.  Project scope statement (5.4 Create WBS)

This is an output of process 5.3 Define Scope, and becomes an input to the following process.   This is the usual pattern for inputs and outputs, where the output of the preceding process becomes the input to the following process.

d.  Requirements documentation (5.3 Define Scope and 5.4 Create WBS)

This is used to select the requirements that will be included in the project, and what needs to be done to deliver the project and its final products.

e.  EEFs (5.4 Create WBS)

Industry-specific WBS standards may be inputs to this process.

f.  OPAs (5.3 Define Scope and 5.4 Create WBS)

The OPAs used as inputs in the 5.3 Define Scope process are:

  • Policies, procedures, and templates for the project scope statement
  • Project files from previous projects (as samples of project scope statement)
  • Lessons learned from previous phases or projects

These two processes are relatively straightforward in terms of their inputs and outputs because the processes they describe, the creation of the project scope statement and the WBS, are central to the project planning process and should be familiar to most project managers.

The next post will cover the final two processes of the Scope Management knowledge area, processes 5.5 Validate Scope and 5.6 Control Scope.