5th Edition PMBOK® Guide—Process 4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work


1. Direct and Manage Project Work–Purpose

This is the third of the six processes in the Integration Knowledge Area, and it is located in the Executing Process Group.

It is the process of leading and performing the project work that was defined in the Project Management Plan (the output of 4.2 Develop Project Management Plan), and implements changes that were approved in process 4.4 Perform Integrated Change Control (in the Monitoring & Controlling Process Group). So it is fed into by the process that precedes it AND the one that follows it.

2. Direct and Manage Project Work—Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs (overview)

Here is a chart summarizing the inputs, tools & techniques, and outputs of the process.

The two inputs Project Management Plan and Approved Change requests have been described in the paragraph in section 1. The other inputs are the generic EEFs and OPAs.

4.3 DIRECT AND MANAGE PROJECT WORK
INPUTS
1. Project Management Plan In particular, those subsidiary management plans in the following areas

  • Scope management plan
  • Requirements management plan
  • Schedule management plan
  • Cost management plan
  • Stakeholder management plan
2. Approved Change Requests This is an output of process 4.4 Perform Integrated Change Control, and may be either

  • Defect repair
  • Corrective action
  • Preventive action
3. EEFs
  • Company and customer culture
  • Infrastructure (facilities, equipment)
  • Personnel administration (performance reviews, hiring/firing guidelines, and training records)
  • Stakeholder risk tolerances (allowable cost overrun %, for example)
  • Project Management Information System (PMIS) (e.g., Microsoft Project, Primavera)
4. OPAs
  • Guidelines, work instructions
  • Communications requirements
  • Issue and defect management procedures, database (historical
  • Process measurement database (collection of measurement data on processes and products)
  • Project files from previous projects (performance measurement baselines, risk registers, lessons learned)
TOOLS & TECHNIQUES
1. Expert Judgment Expertise for directing and managing work comes from:

  • Various units within the organization
  • Consultants and subject matter experts (SMEs)
  • Stakeholders (including external such as customers and suppliers, and internal such as sponsors)
  • Professional and technical associations
2. Project Management Information System (PMIS) Specific tools in PMIS used are:

  • Scheduling tools
  • Work authorization systems
  • Configuration management system
  • Information collection and distribution system
  • Automated gathering and reporting of KPI (key performance indicators)
3. Meetings Three types of meetings are:

  • Information exchange
  • Brainstorming
  • Decision making
OUTPUTS
1. Deliverables Tangible components completed to meet project objectives.
2. Work performance data Raw observations and measurements of identified during activities performed to carry out the project work.

  • Percentage work completed
  • Key performance indicators
  • Technical performance measures
  • Start and finish dates of scheduled activities
  • Number of change requests
  • Number of defects
  • Actual costs, actual durations
3. Change requests
  • Defect repair (modifies nonconforming product)
  • Corrective action (realigns performance with project management plan)
  • Preventive action (ensures future performance aligns with project management plan)
  • Updates (changes to project documents that reflects changes to project)
4. Project Management Plan updates Can include changes to performance baselines, one of the 9 knowledge area-related management plans that make up the Project Management Plan, or the two subsidiary plans of

  • Requirements management plan
  • Process management plan
5. Project documents updates
  • Requirements documentation
  • Project logs (issues, assumptions)
  • Risk register
  • Stakeholder register

In the next post, I will discuss what activities are done in this process with the tools & techniques mentioned above. The post after that will discuss the outputs, particularly the change requests, because managing these is the key to keeping your project under control.

The Spartacus Workout—Version 1.0 from Men’s Health


1. Introduction—Looking for a home exercise solution

Over the holidays, my life got a lot busier as I added two volunteer jobs onto my already full schedule of conducting a job search, participating as club officer in two Toastmasters clubs, going to professional association meetings, AND doing a daily blog post.

My exercise routine was suffering because it took so long to get to the gym, do the preparation for exercise, the exercise itself, and then shower and come back home. The total amount of time I spent was 2-2.5 hours each time I went. Could I gain the same strength training and cardio benefits from a routine I could do at home?

2. Home Exercise Options

I’m not in a position to get a Soloflex or other strength-training exercise machine. I looked at P90X®, the popular home gym system by Tony Horton that is based on circuit training. I decided to ask my trainer at the gym, and he told me that Men’s Health has a circuit training program called The Spartacus Workout that I should look into.

3. Spartacus Workout 1.0—Origins and where to get it

The Spartacus Workout gets its name from the fact that it was designed for the actors for the Starz television series Spartacus to get in shape for their roles. Now I do not have the body of a Roman gladiator; as I joked to friends at a Christmas party to whom I was describing the workout, my body resembles that of a Roman senator more than a Roman gladiator. But I decided to try it, so I downloaded the free IPhone app called Men’s Health Workouts Lite which is FREE. If you want to get the 2.0 or 3.0 version of the Spartacus Workout, you need to get the Men’s Health Workouts which costs $1.99 .

4. Spartacus Workout 1.0—The Circuit Structure

The basic idea behind the workout is that there are 10 exercises in the circuit, each of which you do for 60 seconds. After finishing one exercise, you have a 15-second period after which you go to the next exercise in the circuit until you complete 1 repetition of the entire circuit. Then rest for 2 minutes

You go on to complete 3 full repetitions of the circuit of 10 exercises and then you’re done.

How long does it take? For one circuit

Circuit Component Time Taken Entire Circuit
1 exercise 60 seconds 10 minutes
1 rest period 15 seconds 2.5 minutes

So there are 12.5 minutes for each circuit, so 3 circuits = 37.5 minutes of exercise, plus 2 minutes of rest between each of the 3 circuits = 6 minutes of rest, so you have a total of 42.5 minutes for the whole routine.

In reality, I find it hard to keep track of 60 seconds while exercising. I just do 20 repetitions of each exercise, some of which may take less than 60 seconds. So my actual exercise routine takes about 30-40 minutes.

5. Spartacus Workout 1.0—The Equipment

  • Gym shorts
  • 2 hex dumbbells (I started with 12.5 pounds each)
  • Yoga mat or other not-skid surface (to prevent slipping)
  • Towel
  • Water
  • iPhone (to keep track of exercises)

6. Spartacus Workout 1.0—The Exercises

Exercise

Explanation

1. Goblet Squat
  1. With both hands, grab one end of a dumbbell to hold it vertically in front of your chest, and stand with your feet slightly beyond shoulder width.
  2. Keeping your back naturally arched; push your hips back, bend your knees, and lower your body until the tops of your thighs are at least parallel to the floor. Pause, and push yourself up to the starting position. If that’s too hard, do a body-weight squat instead.
2. Mountain Climber
  1. Assume a pushup position. Your body should form a straight line from your head to your ankles.
  2. Lift your foot off the floor and raise your knee to your chest. Touch the floor with your foot.
  3. Return to the starting position, and repeat with your left leg. Alternate back and forth for 30 seconds.
3. Single-Arm Dumbbell Swing
  1. Hold a dumbbell (or a kettleball) at arm’s length in front of your waist. Without rounding your lower back, bend at your hips and knees and swing the dumbbell between your legs.
  2. Keeping your arm straight, thrust your hips forward and swing the dumbbell to shoulder level as you rise to a standing position. Swing the weight back and forth. At the 30-second mark, switch arms.
4. T-Pushup
  1. Grab a pair of hex dumbbells and assume a pushup position, your arms straight.
  2. Bend your elbows and lower your body until your chest nearly touches the floor.
  3. As you push yourself back up, lift your right hand and rotate the right side of your body as you raise the dumbbell straight up over your shoulder until your body forms a T. Reverse the move and repeat, this time rotating your left side.
5. Split Jump
  1. Stand in a staggered stance with your feet 2 to 3 feet apart, your right foot in front of your left. Keeping your torso straight, bend your legs and lower your body into a lunge.
  2. Now jump with enough force to propel both feet off the floor. While you’re in the air, scissor-kick your legs so you land with your left leg forward. Repeat, alternating your forward leg for the duration of the set.
6. Dumbbell Row
  1. Grab a pair of dumbbells, bend at your hips (don’t round your lower back), and lower your torso until it’s nearly parallel to the floor. Let the dumbbells hang at arm’s length.
  2. Without moving your torso, row the weight upward by raising your upper arms, bending your elbows, and squeezing your shoulder blades together. Pause, lower the dumbbells, and repeat.
7. Dumbbell Side Lunge and Touch
  1. Hold a pair of dumbbells at arm’s length at your sides. Take a big step to your left and lower your body by pushing your hips backward and bending your left knee.
  2. As you lower your body, bend forward at your hips and touch the dumbbells to the floor. Repeat for 30 seconds, and then switch to your right leg. If the exercise is too hard, do the move without the dumbbells; just reach for the floor with your hands.
8. Pushup-Position Row
  1. Grab a pair of hex dumbbells and assume a pushup position, your arms straight.
  2. Keeping your core stiff, row the dumbbell in your right hand to the side of your chest, bending your arm as you pull it upward. Pause, and then quickly lower the dumbbell. Repeat with your left arm.
9. Dumbbell Lunge and Rotation
  1. Grab a dumbbell and hold it horizontally by its ends, just under your chin. Step forward with your right foot and lower your body into a lunge.
  2. As you lunge, rotate your upper body to the right. Return to the starting position, and repeat with your left leg. Alternate left and right until your 60 seconds are up. If the exercise is too hard, perform the movement without the dumbbell.
10. Dumbbell Push Press
  1. Stand holding a pair of dumbbells just outside your shoulders, with your arms bent and palms facing each other. Stand with your feet shoulder-width apart and knees slightly bent. Dip your knees.
  2. Explosively push up with your legs as you press the weights straight over your shoulders. Lower the dumbbells back to the starting position and repeat.

Notice that most of the exercises require the hex dumbbells (1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10), but a few do not (2, 5). In my opinion, the first circuit warms up you, on the second circuit you start to sweat, and on the third circuit you REALLY sweat.

I don’t think I’ll be fighting in any arenas in the near future, but I do have to say that I gain the same energy that I used to have from my gym routine, but in a routine that takes 25% of the time!

7. Spartacus Workout 1.0—Tips and Tricks

  • Do not worry about keeping to a 60-second pace, because it is hard to keep your mind on a stopwatch AND do the exercise properly, at least when you are getting used to the routine. Focus instead on doing 15 and 20 reps in GOOD FORM, no matter how long it takes.
  • You should do some stretching beforehand; I do a 15-20 minute yoga warm-up routine, so I essentially exercise for 1 hour if you consider the yoga + Spartacus Workout as one big routine.
  • The iPhone app of Men’s Health Workouts LITE has a built-in log so you can record when you do the routine. Either do this or record your workouts in another app, such as GymGoal, which I prefer.
  • The nutrition portion of the program is something I do in connection with the Transformation website by Bill Phillips. This six-meal-a-day plan is also the core of Tony Horton’s P90X® system in that it encourages you to eat three meals a day, plus two midmeals or snacks and a dessert. This spreading out of your caloric intake throughout the day makes your stomach gradually shrink because you are eating smaller meals whenever you do eat, and it keeps your blood sugar on a more even keel throughout the day.
  • If you’re timid about being a “gladiator”, then start out by doing 1 circuit, 3 times a week. This will be a good warm-up in the morning. Then once you are used to the exercises, increase to 2 circuits. You will start to see results in terms of greater energy and boosted metabolism, and will soon want to do the 3 circuit routine.

One thing I have to say about the Spartacus Workout as a side benefit, is that because you are constantly switching exercises every minute, you are NEVER bored. Because it is fast moving and intense, it is the quickest-moving half-hour or so of exercise you will ever experience! Now that I have “graduated” to the full 3-circuit workout, I plan to do it 3 times a week and see how it effects my weight and my body fat percentage over the next 3 ½ months. I’ll measure it at the end of May on my birthday, and if I lose 10 pounds or more, I’ll consider it a success.

5th Edition PMBOK® Guide—The Project Management Plan


The last post discussed the second of the processes in the Integration Knowledge Area, process 4.2 Develop Project Management Plan.

This post will focus on the elements of the Project Management Plan, which essentially are the plans from all of the other knowledge areas plus 4 additional plans that are integrated together in this process.

1. Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs

Let’s first review the inputs to the process.

4.1 DEVELOP PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN
INPUTS
1. Project Charter Defines high-level boundaries of the project; used as the starting point for initial planning.
2. Outputs from other Processes Baselines and management plans from all other knowledge areas plus 4 additional subsidiary plans
3. EEFs Government or industry standards, PM body of knowledge for application area (construction, healthcare, IT, etc.)
4. OPAs
  • Guidelines, work instructions, proposal evaluation criteria, performance measurement criteria
  • Project management plan template
  • Change control procedures
  • Project files from previous projects, lessons learned knowledge base
  • Configuration management knowledge base
TOOLS & TECHNIQUES
1. Expert Judgment Utilized for developing:

  • Technical and management details
  • HR expertise regarding resources, skill levels
  • Configuration management
  • Change control process
  • Resource scheduling
2. Facilitation Techniques Brainstorming, conflict resolution, problem solving, meeting management
OUTPUTS
1. Project Management Plan Integrates all baselines and subsidiary plans

2. Input #2 = Outputs from Other Planning Processes

What are the three categories of outputs from other planning processes that become the elements of the Project Management Plan?

Category

Description

1.. Performance Measurement Baseline This consists of the following three baselines:

  • Scope baseline (= project scope statement + WBS + WBS dictionary)
  • Schedule baseline
  • Cost baseline
2.. Knowledge area management plans These consist of plans from the 8 knowledge areas other than Integration

  • Scope Management Plan
  • Schedule Management Plan
  • Cost Management Plan
  • Quality Management Plan
  • Human Resource Plan
  • Communications Management Plan
  • Risk Management Plan
  • Procurements Management Plan
  • Stakeholder Management Plan
3. Additional management plans These are additional management plans such as

  • Requirements management plan (scope)
  • Change management plan (scope)
  • Configuration management plan (scope)
  • Process improvement plan (quality)

3. Additional management plans—additional explanation

It is fairly obvious that the nine management plans listed under item 2 above come from the various knowledge areas listed. However, I feel a little more detail should be in order for those 4 additional management plans listed under item 3.

Management Plan

Explanation

1. Change management plan This outlines the change control process:

  • who can approve, including the creation of a change control board if necessary
  • how approved changes will be managed and controlled
2. Configuration management plan As opposed to changes in the project, the configuration controls changes to the functional and physical characteristics of the product, and documents those changes.
3. Requirements management plan This links the various requirements to

  • the overall project objectives (sometimes through a requirements traceability index)
  • the source of each requirement (which stakeholder)
  • who is assigned to manage the requirement
4. Process improvement plan Improving processes used on the project during the course of the project by analyzing them in order to identify those activities that enhance value.

These are the elements of the Project Management Plan. In my opinion, it is the most integrative of ALL the 47 processes and that is why it is important to understand that it is the “mother of all plans” that actually must come last after all the subsidiary plans are created, 9 from the knowledge areas other than Integration and the 4 additional plans outlined above.

The next post will be on the third process of the Integration Knowledge Area, that of 4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work.

5th Edition PMBOK® Guide–Process 4.2 Develop Project Management Plan


The second project management process in the Integration Knowledge Area is under the Planning Process Group and it is called Develop Project Management Plan.

Here is a list of the inputs, tools & techniques, and outputs used in the Develop Project Management Plan process.

1. Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs–summary

4.2  DEVELOP PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN
INPUTS
1. Project Charter Defines high-level boundaries of the project; used as the starting point for initial planning.
2. Outputs from other Processes Baselines and subsidiary plans from other planning processes.
3. EEFs Government or industry standards, PM body of knowledge for application area (construction, healthcare, IT, etc.)
4. OPAs
  • Guidelines, work instructions, proposal evaluation criteria, performance measurement criteria
  • Project management plan template
  • Change control procedures
  • Project files from previous projects, lessons learned knowledge base
  • Configuration management knowledge base
TOOLS & TECHNIQUES
1. Expert Judgment Utilized for developing:

  • Technical and management details
  • HR expertise regarding resources, skill levels
  • Configuration management
  • Change control process
  • Resource scheduling
2. Facilitation Techniques Brainstorming, conflict resolution, problem solving, meeting management
OUTPUTS
1. Project Management Plan Integrates all baselines and subsidiary plans

2. Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs–detail

In going over these elements, let’s start from the end and work backwards.

It should be no surprise that the Output of the “Develop Project Management Plan” process is the Project Management Plan. This integrates all of the baselines and subsidiary plans from the various knowledge areas and other areas required for project management.

The Tools & Techniques should be pretty understandable once it is understood what is in the Project Management Plan. Expert Judgment is used when technical subjects related to planning are involved, which is true for many of the subsidiary plans that are integrated into the Project Management Plan. Facilitation Techniques are used to reach out to various stakeholders so that there is buy-in for the Project Management Plan.

For the inputs, you have the Project Charter, which actually contains a certain amount of high-level planning, which is turned into detailed plans that are contained in the Project Management Plan. These detailed plans are produced for each of the knowledge areas, plus other areas required for project management, and these are the next set of inputs.

The next two inputs are ones you will see throughout the processes: EEFs (Environmental Enterprise Factors) and OPAs (Operational Process Assets). For the EEFs, you have a) the governmental standards and regulations, and b) the PM body of knowledge for the particular application area, which consists of the practical application of project management to that area.

The OPAs are in two categories, a) those guidelines, processes, and templates for project management plans, and b) the corporate knowledge base containing project management plans from previous projects.

This gives a general overview of these elements. In order to really understand the process in depth, however, we should look at the contents of the project management plan. That is the subject of the next post.

5th Edition PMBOK® Guide—Chapter 4: Project Charter


The last post dealt with the inputs to Process 4.1 Develop Project Charter. It doesn’t take a great deal of imagination to figure out that the output of the Process 4.1 Develop Project Charter is, in fact, the Project Charter.

The purpose of this post is to into a little more detail about what’s in the Project Charter.

I want to ask similar questions that I asked about the What is it? How does it fit in the flow of PM processes? What are the elements within it?

1. Project Charter—What is it?

The project charter takes the “seed” of the project, the Project Statement of Work (and input to Process 4.1 Develop Project Charter) and prepares it to be “watered” or authorized by the sponsor.

2. Project Charter—How does it fit in the flow of PM processes?

As you can see by the chart below, it is an output of Process 4.1 Develop Project Charter

4.1 DEVELOP PROJECT CHARTER
INPUTS
1. Project Statement of Work (SOW) Description of product, service or result to be delivered by project, the business need, and the strategic plan
2. Business Case Ties together the elements of the SOW (description of product, etc.), business need, and the strategic plan.
3. Agreements Contract or MOU (memorandum of understanding); used when project is being performed for external customer
4. EEFs Government or industry standards, organizational culture, marketplace conditions
5. OPAs Organizational policies and procedures, project document templates and corporate database of lessons learned
TOOLS & TECHNIQUES
1. Expert Judgment Used for analyzing technical and management-related details of inputs in order to develop the output (project charter)
2. Facilitation Techniques Brainstorming, conflict resolution, problem solving
OUTPUTS
1. Project Charter Formally authorizes the project

3. Project Charter—Who creates it?

The project manager is the one that should be creating it together with the stakeholders, in particular the sponsor who will authorize the project, and the customer for whom the project is going to be carried out. However, the project manager cannot on his own authorize the project, this must be done by the sponsor.

Asking the various experts and stakeholders about the requirements of the project is, in fact, what the tools & techniques of Expert Judgment and Facilitation Techniques are used for, respectively.

4. Project Charter—What are the elements within it.

Here are the elements of the Project Statement of Work (the “seed” idea of the project) compared to the elements of the Project Charter (used for approval of the project). Those elements which are similar are put in the same row. In this chart, the elements 1 and 3 from the above chart on the Project Statement of Work correspond to the first element of the Project Charter, and element 2 from the above chart corresponds to the second element of the Project Charter.

Category Elements
1. Business Case Project purpose or justification (fits business needs, strategic plan)
2. Scope Management Measurable project objectives
3. Project success criteria
4. High-level project description and boundaries
5. Risk Management High-level risks
6. Time Management Summary milestone schedule
7. Cost Management Summary budget
8. Stakeholder Management Stakeholder list
9. Authority Project approval requirements (what they are, who decides approval and signs off)
10. Project manager assigned to project
11. Name and authority of sponsor or authorizer of project

Project Charter

Category: Business Case

1. Project purpose or justification

In order for the project to go forward, it has to be for a specific business need (both external or internal to organization) and it must fit into the company’s strategic plan. This is why a program manager and/or portfolio manager would be involved in the decision to green light a project. The project has to fit into the company’s work that is external to the project.

Category: Scope Management

2. Measurable project objectives

The difference between the high-level description of the product contained in the Project Statement of Work and this element of the Project Charter is the word “measurable”. The objective has to be measured in order for there to be…

3. Project success criteria

That’s why when you want to go somewhere in your car, you don’t say “take me somewhere nice”. You have to enter a specific address in order for the system to take you to a specific location.

4. High-level description of the project and boundaries

This is not a description of the product, it is a description of what the project will achieve. Boundaries in this context means exclusions: what is specifically NOT in the project. This becomes increasingly important in project management, as it is the place where you can prevent a lot of scope changes right away by agreeing with stakeholders right from the start what you will NOT do on the project.

Category: Risk Management

5. High-level risks

What are those events or other factors which have a chance of causing the project to be delayed, or in the worst case, to fail to achieve the objectives?

Category: Time Management

6. Summary Milestone Schedule

What are the major schedule milestones within which the project must operate? Is there an overall absolute time constraint? Now is the time to state this clearly. If a change comes along that knocks the schedule off past what the project charter says is an absolute deadline, then a) the project schedule needs to be accelerated, b) some other constraint (like scope) has to be altered, or c) the project may need to be terminated.

Category: Cost Management

7. Summary Budget

The other major constraint besides scope and time is that of cost. Is there an overall absolute budget constraint? Again, now is the time to state this clearly. If a change comes along that will cause the budget to go over what the project charter says is an absolute budget ceiling, then a) the project needs to be brought under, b) some other constraint (like scope) has to be altered, or c) the project may need to be terminated.

Category: Stakeholder Management

8. List of Stakeholders

Identifying all the relevant stakeholders needs to be done as the first step in managing them.

Category: Authority

9. Project approval requirements (what they are, who decides approval and signs off)

The project approval requirements are not the same as the project success criteria. The project success criteria (element #2 of the project charter) is more related to the scope. What are the customer’s requirements and how will we know that we have fulfilled them?

The project approval requirements are not focused on what the scope, but on whether the project was successful in achieving those results within the time and schedule constraints given at the beginning of the project. You can achieve your goals, but were they done in a timely manner and within the allotted budget? That is the focus of these project approval requirements.

10. Project manager assigned to project

This is important for obvious reasons. PMI recommends assigning the project manager during the initiating process, and not in the planning process.

11. Name and authority of sponsor or authorizer of project

This will be the not only the person who gives the green light to the project, but also the one authorizes to terminate the project if it is not able to achieve the objectives listed in the project charter.

These elements are what take the “seed” of the project as an input to the 4.1 Develop Project Charter Process, with the approval of the project charter by the authority, allow that seed to germinate so that it can be planted during the planning process, grow during the executing process, be pruned during the monitoring & controlling process, and finally harvested during the closing process.

5th Edition PMBOK® Guide—Chapter 4: Project Statement of Work


1. Project Statement of Work–Introduction

The first process in the Integration Knowledge Area is 4.1 Develop Project Charter. The Project Statement of Work is the first input to that process. Normally I would not devote an entire blog post to a single input, tool, technique, or output to a process, because there are a total of 614 of them in the 5th Edition of the PMBOK® Guide, and it would take me almost two years to cover them all at the rate of one per day.

However, the Project Statement of Work is such an important input that I am making an exception and devoting this entire blog post to it. I will do this by answering the questions: What is it? How does it fit in the flow of PM processes? Who creates it? How does it work with together with the other inputs of the process 4.1? How is it related to procurements?

2. Project Statement of Work (SOW)—What is it?

The best way I can describe the Project Statement of Work is using the analogy of planting a garden. Imagine getting a seed that you want to plant. A seed sitting there in your hand isn’t going to do very much. It has to be watered before it will germinate and become a seedling. The seedling is then planted in the ground, where it sprouts and then starts to grow when it receives sunlight and nutrients from the soil. Of course, proper gardening requires that you check it periodically to see if there are any adverse conditions such as pests and diseases. If the plant is healthy and you have been a diligent gardener, you can then finally harvest the plant.

If you think of the project as a plant, then the Project Statement of Work is like the “seed” of a project. It contains the blueprint (analogous to the plant DNA) for the project in a very small package. The project is then “watered” by taking the input of the Project Statement of Work and turning in into the Project Charter, which takes that seed of an idea for a project and gives enough high-level detail for it to be approved by a sponsor.

Then the seed becomes a seedling and it ready to be planted; in this case, the project is given a green light and a complete Project Scope Statement is created is created in the Planning Process. This gives enough detail for work to start being done on the project. The sprouting of the plant above the ground and its growth is analogous to the Executing Process, the careful watching for adverse conditions such as pests and diseases is analogous to the Monitoring & Controlling process, and the harvesting of the plant is analogous to the Closing Process.

3. Project Statement of Work (SOW)—How does it fit into the flow of PM Processes?

The Project Statement of Work or SOWs the seed or kernel of the idea for the project, and is one of the inputs to Process 4.1 Develop Project Charter during the Initiating Process Group. In the case of procurements, the SOW can also come from the Agreements input. It is one of the ingredients, together with the business need, and the strategic reason for the project (listed as “cost-benefit analysis” in the chart below) that make up the second input called the Business Case.

4.1 DEVELOP PROJECT CHARTER
INPUTS
1. Project Statement of Work (SOW) Description of product, service or result to be delivered by project, the business need, and the strategic plan
2. Business Case Ties together the elements of the SOW (description of product, etc.), business need, and the strategic plan.
3. Agreements Contract or MOU (memorandum of understanding); used when project is being performed for external customer
4. EEFs Government or industry standards, organizational culture, marketplace conditions
5. OPAs Organizational policies and procedures, project document templates and corporate database of lessons learned
TOOLS & TECHNIQUES
1. Expert Judgment Used for analyzing technical and management-related details of inputs in order to develop the output (project charter)
2. Facilitation Techniques Brainstorming, conflict resolution, problem solving
OUTPUTS
1. Project Charter Formally authorizes the project

These three inputs, plus the generic inputs of the EEFs and OPAs, make up the five inputs to the 4.1 Develop Project Charter process.

4. Project Statement of Work (SOW)—Who creates it?

This is going to depend on the end result of the project is going to be a product, service, or result that is used internally within the company, or is to be delivered to an external customer.

If the sponsoring organization is the one that is going to use the end result, then the sponsor is the one that originates the SOW (input #1 above) If a customer is the one that is going to use the end result, then the customer is the one that originates the SOW. The SOW may be part of a bid document (request for proposal, request for information, request for bid) or as part of a contract, all of which are examples of Agreements (input #3 above).

4. Project Statement of Work (SOW)—How does it work with the other inputs?

a. SOW
The components of the Project SOW are as follows:

Element Description
1. Product scope description Characteristics of the product, service or result to be created as a result of the project. How does this project fulfill the business need described above?
2. Business need Why do the project? Because of some external factor such as:

  • Market demand (new demands create new products)
  • Technological advance (taking advantage of new materials and/or availabile technologies
  • Legal requirement
  • Government regulations (environmental, safety, etc.)
  • Organizational need (increased revenues, compliance with industry standards or guidelines such as ISO)
  • Social need (NGO)
  • Customer request
3. Strategic plan Why do the project? Because it aligns with some internal strategic goals of the organization, both in terms of the high-level mission statement, the strategic plan, and the actual cost-benefit analysis of how the project will contribute to the bottom line of the organization.

b. Business Case

How is the business need different from the business case? The business case takes the business need outlined in the SOW (element 1 in the chart above) and justifies how the result of the project (element 2 in the chart above) will satisfy that need AND align with the strategic goals of the organization (element 3 in the chart above). It is the analysis that ties together the 3 elements of the SOW like so:

c. Agreements

As mentioned above, IF the product is to be made for a customer in an external organization, then the SOW may come EITHER in the form of a procurement document OR a contract, both of which are covered under the category of Agreements.

So the SOW may come internally or externally (input #1 or input #3), and is analyzed in what is called the business case (input #2). As the “seed” of the project, it is then taken into the Initiating Process group through process 4.1 Develop Project Charter, where it is developed into the Project Charter (the output of the process) through two techniques, Expert Judgment and Facilitation Techniques.

This concludes the discussion of the Project Statement of Work, the input to Process 4.1 Develop Project Charter. The next post will deal with the output of Process 4.1 Develop Project Charter, by analyzing what the elements of the Project Charter are.

5th Edition PMBOK® Guide: Chapter 4: Develop Project Charter


The first project management process in the Integration Knowledge Area is under the Initiating Process Group and it is called Develop Project Charter.

Here is a list of the inputs, tools & techniques, and outputs used in the Develop Project Charter process.

1. Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs–summary

4.1 DEVELOP PROJECT CHARTER
INPUTS
1. Project Statement of Work Description of product, service or result to be delivered by project.
2. Business Case Business need, cost-benefit analysis
3. Agreements Contract or MOU (memorandum of understanding); used when project is being performed for external customer
4. EEFs Government or industry standards, organizational culture, marketplace conditions
5. OPAs Organizational policies and procedures, project document templates and corporate database of lessons learned
TOOLS & TECHNIQUES
1. Expert Judgment Used for analyzing technical and management-related details of inputs in order to develop the output (project charter)
2. Facilitation Techniques Brainstorming, conflict resolution, problem solving
OUTPUTS
1. Project Charter Formally authorizes the project

2. Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs–detail

In going over these elements, let’s start from the end and work backwards.

It should be no surprise that the Output of the “Develop Project Charter” process is the Project Charter.

The Tools & Techniques should be pretty understandable once it is understood what is in the Project Charter. It contains the high-level definitions of the project, the constraints, assumptions, risks and exclusions that determine the parameters within which the project must be carried out. Expert Judgment is a Tool & Technique because technical definitions of the product will require technical experts, and the justification of the project, the business case, will require experts familiar with the details of the external business need and the internal cost-benefit analysis.

To translate the requirements of the customer (or sponsor) into actual high-level objectives or deliverables requires the collaborative effort of many stakeholders, which is why Facilitation Techniques is the second Tool & Technique listed. Coming up with a list of requirements requires brainstorming, but if some of the requirements conflict with each other it is necessary to apply problem solving and conflict resolution in order to come up with a set of requirements that is consistent.

For the inputs, it should project statement of work, the “seed” of the project, is included, because it is the essence of “what” the project will create. The “why” of the project, its justification as far as the organization who is doing the project is concerned, comes up in the input of the “Business Case.”

If the project is external, the statement of work will come from a customer in the form of a contract or memorandum of understanding. This is the basis for the Agreements input.

The next two inputs are ones you will see throughout the processes: EEFs (Environmental Enterprise Factors) and OPAs (Operational Process Assets). For the EEFS, the external reasons for the project (part of the Business Case) are found in the governmental and industry standards, marketplace conditions, or organizational culture. The OPAs give the company the forms and templates for the project documents, the historical documents from previous projects to use as a reference, and the policies and procedures by which the project will be carried out.

This gives a general overview of these elements. In order to really understand the process in depth, however, we should look at the a) project statement of work and b) project charter to see exactly what are in each of them and how they compare and contrast. That will be the subject of the next post.

5th Edition PMBOK® Guide—Chapter 4: Integration Knowledge Area


1. Integration Knowledge Area—Introduction

The 1st of the 10 Knowledge Areas to be covered by the PMBOK® Guide is the Integration Knowledge Area. This knowledge area is the “heart and soul” of Project Management, in my opinion, because it takes ALL of the project management activities across the 5 process groups and down the other 9 knowledge areas and unifies, consolidates, communicates and integrates them into a single entity, THE PROJECT.

This is why the PMBOK® Guide lists it as the first of the knowledge areas. However, when you are learning about project management, having this be the first knowledge area you study may be difficult because t is arguably one of the most complicated of the knowledge areas. For that reason, the PMP/CAPM exam prep class that is put on by the Orange County chapter of the Project Management Institute actually teaches it LAST instead of first. So you may want to consider reviewing the material of the other knowledge area chapters first, and then coming back to the Integration Knowledge Area after you’ve covered all the rest.

2. Integration Knowledge Area—Summary of all Six Processes

You will notice that the Integration Knowledge Area is the ONLY knowledge area which has processes in all 5 process groups. There is one process for each process group, with Monitoring & Controlling having two groups.

Process

Group

Process

Number

Process
Name
Process Description
Initiating 4.1 Develop Project Charter Develops document that formally authorizes project and provides project manager with authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.

 

Planning 4.2 Develop Project Management Plan Defines, prepares, and coordinates all subsidiary plans and baselines (from all 9 other knowledge areas) and integrates them into a comprehensive project management plan.

 

 

Executing 4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work Leads and performs work defined in project management plan and implements approved changes to achieve the project’s objectives.

 

Monitoring

& Controlling

4.4 Monitor and Control Project Work Tracks, reviews, and reports project progress against performance objectives defined in project management plan.

 

4.5 Perform Integrated Change Control Reviews change requests; approves changes and manages changes to deliverables, OPAs, or project management plan itself; communicates their disposition

 

Closing 4.6 Close Project

or Phase

Finalizes project across all PM process groups; formally closes project or phase

3.  Let’s take a closer look at the process descriptions.

4.1 Develop Project Charter

The Project Charter is the formal “green light” to the project and is done as part of the Initiating Process Group. It’s the high-level statement of what the project will accomplish, why it is being done (the business case), and the high-level assumptions, risks, and constraints within which the project must operate. Although the project manager should be assigned at this stage, the focus here is on the approval that must be obtained from the sponsor, and that is the basic purpose behind the project charter.

4.2 Develop Project Management Plan

The next four processes can be understood through the original Deming PLAN-DO-CHECK-ACT cycle which describes process improvement in general. The PLAN part comes with the Project Management Plan, which is obviously part of the Planning Process Group. This process combines a) the individual management plans of all the knowledge areas (Scope Management Plan, Cost Management Plan, etc.), and b) some other management plans (such as Change Management Plan) and integrates them together into the Project Management Plan.

4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work

This is the DO part of the Deming PLAN-DO-CHECK-ACT cycle, and the process belongs in the Executing Process Group. Notice that it is doing the work in the plan PLUS any approved changes. The changes get evaluated and approved in the Monitoring & Controlling Process under process 4.5 Perform Integrated Change Control, but get implemented here in this process, 4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work.

4.4 Monitor and Control Project Work

This is the CHECK part of the PLAN-DO-CHECK-ACT cycle, which is the Monitoring part of the Monitoring & Controlling Process Group. What are you checking for? To see if the project is progressing as planned in process 4.2 Develop Project Management Plan. What happens if you’re NOT on track and you want to get back? Then you go to the NEXT process, which is …

4.5 Perform Integrated Change Control

This is the ACT part of the PLAN-DO-CHECK-ACT cycle, which is the Controlling part of the Monitoring & Controlling Process Group. What are you controlling? You are controlling the project so that if it gets off track from any of the performance baselines, you can then suggest, evaluate, and then either approve or reject changes that help you get it back on track. If the changes are approved, then and only then do they get implemented back in the Executing Process Group under process 4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work.

4.6 Close Project or Phase

If the project does proceed to the point where the deliverables are completed within the plan developed in process 4.2, then you get formal closure of the project or phase from the customer and/or sponsor of the project. Obviously this is part of the Closing Process Group. Or if the project gets to the point where it is decided that the project CANNOT be completed as specified in the project charter, the project may be terminated, but still much go through formal closure.

This is a general high-level description of the six processes in the Integration Knowledge Area. The next posts will discuss the six processes in detail.

5th Edition PMBOK® Guide—Chapter 3: Project Information and Knowledge Areas


1. Project Information

One of the innovations for the 5th Edition PMBOK® Guide is that PMI has made more consistent the distinction between data and information on a project. Data are the raw, unorganized observations and measurements identified during activities performed to carry out the project work. Information is what you get when you process data, organized it and presented in such a way that it is meaningful or useful. That information is transmitted in project documents called reports.

So here’s the distinction:

Knowledge category Explanation Examples
1. Work performance data Raw observations and measurements taken during executing process Actual costs, actual activity durations, technical performance measures

 

2. Work performance information Data is collected from controlling processes, analyzed and integrated Forecasted estimates to complete, implementation status of change requests

 

3. Work performance reports Information is presented in project documents Status reports, memos

2. Knowledge Areas

The first axis along which the 47 project management processes are organized is that of the five process groups; the other axis along which the 47 processes are organized is that of the 10 Knowledge Areas.

One of the innovations of the 5th Edition PMBOK® Guide is that there are 10 knowledge areas now instead of 9.

The 10 Knowledge Areas are:

PMBOK Chapter Knowledge Area
1. Chapter 4 Project Integration Management
2. Chapter 5 Project Scope Management
3. Chapter 6 Project Time Management
4. Chapter 7 Project Cost Management
5. Chapter 8 Project Quality Management
6. Chapter 9 Project Human Resources Management
7. Chapter 10 Project Communications Management
8. Chapter 11 Project Risk Management
9. Chapter 12 Project Procurement Management
10. Chapter 13 Project Stakeholder Management

The 47 processes are displayed on page 61 of the PMBOK® Guide.

The next 10 chapters of the PMBOK® Guide systematically go through each of the 10 knowledge areas. Each knowledge area will cover the processes in each area, giving the inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs to each of those processes.

This concludes the summary of Chapter 3 of the PMBOK® Guide. The next posts will cover Chapter 4 of the PMBOK® Guide.

5th Edition PMBOK® Guide—Chapter 3: Closing Process Group


This post covers the last of the five process groups, the Closing Process Group.

1. Closing Process Group—Purpose

The purpose of the Closing Process Group according to the PMBOK® Guide is to conclude all activities across all Project Management Process Groups to formally complete the project, phase, or contractual obligations.

A key word in this definition is the word formally, which means that the conclusion of the project has to be documented. (Whenever you see the word formally, think “in writing”.) The phrase “contractual obligations” covers two sets of obligations that the organization may be under:

a) if the organization doing the project is a buyer receiving some component from a supplier (in order to make the finished product), the contractual obligation to the supplier is to compensate the supplier according to the agreed upon terms of the procurement contract, and

b) if the organization doing the project is providing the finished product to a customer.

the obligation to the customer, the contractual obligation to the customer is to provide the customer with the finished product according to the agreed upon criteria for acceptance.

These two sets of contractual obligations are contrasted visually in the diagram below.

The first set of contractual obligations is covered under the Close Procurements process, and the second set of contractual obligations is covered under the Close Project or Phase process in the Closing Process Group. Those two processes are in fact the only processes in that process group.

2. Close Project or Phase—three scenarios

There are three separate scenarios covered by the Close Project or Phase process.

a. Phase complete

Let’s take the situation where the project is complicated enough that your organization has decided during the Initiating Process Group that the project will be split into several phases. A phase is like a mini-project in that it will comprise the five process groups including the Closing Process Group. In this case, the Close Project or Phase process really means Close Phase. The deliverables for that phase must be validated internally within the organization and then, if the final product is destined for a customer, must be verified (externally) by that customer. If this internal validation and external verification by the customer are both successful, THEN the project may continue to the next phase.

b. Project complete

Let’s say that the project, whether it consists of one phase or many phases, is now at the point where the final product has been produced. In this case, the Close Project or Phase process really means Close Project. An essential part of this process is delivering the final product to the customer. The customer must then either formally accept or reject the product. If the customer formally accepts the product, and pays the agreed upon compensation for that product, then the contractual obligations of your organization and the customer are both fulfilled, and the project may proceed to conclusion.

c. Project terminated

Let’s say that the customer, instead of formally accepting the product, formally rejects it because it does not meet the customer’s expectations. There may be a request for rework, or some other terms on which the customer may accept the product if your organization makes suggested changes to make the product meet the customer’s expectations. If your organization is unwilling or unable to meet the customer’s expectations as far as the product is concerned, then the project may be terminated, and there will be legal repercussions for your inability to fulfill the contractual obligation to the customer.

Even if there is no customer, the project may be terminated because the sponsor concludes that the project no longer is able to be completed within the scope, time and budget constraints of the project set forth in the project charter.

This situation when a project is terminated is also referred to in the PMBOK® Guide as premature closure.

In either case, if the project is terminated, that doesn’t mean that the Close Project or Phase process is skipped. In this scenario, the organization must still document why the project was terminated so that the lessons learned on this failed project can be used to prevent such an occurrence on future projects.

So in summary the above three scenarios may all lead to the Close Project or Phase:

3. Close Process of Phase—categories of activities

The closing process actually covers three separate types of closure: closure of procurements, internal closure (administrative and financial), and external closure (formal acceptance of deliverables). These three terms for the categories of activities are not in the PMBOK® Guide, but they are terms which I am using in order to make sense of the list of activities presented in the PMBOK® Guide.

Here’s the list of activities presented in the PMBOK® Guide divided into three categories in order to bring a little more conceptual clarity to the overall process. NOTE: These activities are listed by category. The internal closure activities are in blue, the external closure activities are in green, and the closure of procurement activities are in yellow.

Category Activity NOTES
1. Internal Closure Confirm that the defined processes are completed to produce final product of the project. Focus is on processes (quality assurance)
2. Internal Closure Validate (internally) that the product of the project meets acceptance criteria. Focus on deliverables (quality control)
3. External Closure Deliver final product of the project to the customer or sponsor. The moment of truth!
4. External Closure Obtain final acceptance of the product of the project from the customer or sponsor. If product rejected, project may be terminated.
5. Internal Closure Complete financial records and release unused project resources. Important for”lean” practice!
6. Closure of Procurements Close out all procurement activities and ensure termination of all procurement agreements. May be conducted earlier than project closure.
7. Internal Closure Document lessons learned (part of corporate knowledge base, a category of Organizational Process Assets). Why reinvent the wheel next time?
8. Internal Closure Update all processes and procedures (a category of Organizational Process Assets). Crucial step for PMOs
9. Internal Closure Archive all project documents and templates in the project management information system (PMIS) NOTE: PMIS is part of EEF, but documents are OPAs
10. Internal Closure Perform assessment of team members’ performance Another moment of truth!
11. Internal Closure Conduct review of project (or phase) performance This is the post-project review
12. Internal Closure Distribute final report of project (or phase) performance. Time to celebrate (if project successful)!

Note that the Closure of Procurements category (listed in yellow) is part of the Close Procurements process within the Closing Process Group; the Internal Closure and External Closure categories (listed in blue and green, respectively) are part of the Close Project or Phase process within the Closing Process Group.

This concludes the review of the last of the 5 process groups, the Closing Process Group.

The final post for Chapter 3 will deal with how project information is categorized, and a brief introduction to the knowledge areas.